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flow-assisted corrosion

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion or phosphate hide out Microbially induced corrosion Flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) Erosion corrosion Cavitation damage Oxygen attack or oxygen pitting Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) Caustic stress-corrosion cracking or caustic embrittlement Stress-assisted corrosion (SAC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., including general corrosion, under-deposit corrosion, microbially induced corrosion, flow-accelerated corrosion, stress-assisted corrosion, erosion-corrosion, cavitation, oxygen pitting, stress-corrosion cracking, and caustic embrittlement. The discussion is supported by several illustrations and relevant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... deviation and take whatever corrective action is necessary ( Fig. 6 ). To accurately control the gas flow, mass flow controllers are used. A mass flow controller can control flow rates ranging from centiliters per hour to liters per hour far more accurately than a conventional flowmeter. All...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... on local flow conditions. Furthermore, metals and alloys are typically covered with a surface layer. Their corrosion behavior is influenced by the surface layer and by a host of metallurgical factors. Even extremely pure single crystals have defects that can affect corrosion, but impurities and alloying...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... flow rates could be incorrect. Increase the nitrogen flow rate to increase the nitriding potential of the process. case depth case hardness corrosion distortion ferritic nitrocarburizing visual microscopic evaluation ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., real-time corrosion monitoring as a complementary tool to ICDA, where the two techniques can each provide information to assist in the optimal application of the other. In brief: The ICDA modeling software tools encapsulate flow and corrosion modeling functionality to identify where corrosion can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... Fig. 1 Geometry of crevice corrosion. The average separation is the gap, g . Fig. 2 Crevice corrosion under seal in type 316 stainless steel sieve from steam condenser cooling water system exposed to flowing seawater for two years at less than 40 °C (104 °F). Source: Ref 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and organic acids (e.g., hydrochloric, HCl, hydrofluoric, HF, formic, HCOOH, and others) that are injected down the well and into the formation to increase formation permeability for better flow of hydrocarbons. Some of these fluids are inherently corrosive; others are potentially corrosive only when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...: Ref 8 Fretting corrosion has been a continuing problem in nuclear reactors. The condition is found on heat-exchanger tubes and on fuel elements. In both cases, long, flexible tubes are in contact with support surfaces and subjected to vibrations generated by fluid flow as the coolant flows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430376
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Dooley R.B. , Flow Accelerated Corrosion in Fossil and Combined Cycle/HRSG Plants , Power Plant Chemistry , Vol 10 ( No. 2 ), 2008 , p 68 – 89 6.21 Lai G.Y. , High Temperature Corrosion and Materials Applications , ASM International , 2007 , p 235 6.22 Fan, J...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... phase. Accurate control of the gas delivery into the process retort ensures accurate control of the nitriding metallurgy. Precise metering of each gas is accomplished by mass flow controllers. A similar effect will occur on an H13 hot-work press forging die if the case is too deep...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... damage, and reviews hydrogen degradation in specific ferrous and nonferrous alloys. The preeminent theories for hydrogen damage are based on pressure, surface adsorption, decohesion, enhanced plastic flow, hydrogen attack, and hydride formation. The specific alloys covered are iron-base, nickel, aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... databases, makes flow modeling calculations, and applies expert rules for assessment of corrosivity and/or materials selection. This basically has resulted in a joining of online monitoring, inspection technologies, computer science, and process control information with real-time feed to process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of a process. Localized corrosion cannot be guaranteed to initiate before the coupons are removed—even with extended test durations. Corrosion rate calculated from coupons may not reflect the corrosion of the plant equipment because of factors such as multiphase flow, where the aqueous phase is much more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... 21 Fig. 16.7 Corrosion rates of Types 304 and 316, PCA (primary candidate alloy), and HT-9 and 9Cr-1Mo steels in flowing lithium. CW, cold worked; FCL, forced-convection loop; TCL, thermal-convection loop. Source: Ref 24 16.7 Corrosion in Sodium Liquid sodium is used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
...., circumferential cracking of the waterwall) is covered in Chapter 10 “Coal-Fired Boilers.” In that chapter, the correlation between the circumferential cracking and the stress-assisted preferential corrosion penetration is discussed. The current chapter discusses the phenomenon of the preferential high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... corrosion and the possibility of fatigue cracking), are also important because of the possibility of SCC in some environments. Geometrical Factors It should be recognized that excess root penetration can interrupt fluid flow close to the wall of a pipe in high-flow-rate operation, leading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... with a sufficiently high flow rate to “unlock” the bed of aluminum oxide. This means that the bed is no longer “slumped,” but activated and bubbling. Great care must be taken not to have the gas flow rate so high that it will blow the aluminum oxide out of the bed. Any previous atmosphere in the bed (e.g...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and the possibility of fatigue cracking), are also important because of the possibility of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in some environments. Geometrical Factors It should be recognized that excess root penetration can interrupt fluid flow close to the wall of a pipe in high-flow-rate operation, leading...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... (wear, flow velocity, and/or fatigue) to produce severe attack, usually of a localized nature. Because removal of the protective aluminum oxide film by mechanical processes exposes fresh metal to attack, corrosion occurs at an accelerated rate. Erosion-Corrosion Erosion-corrosion is a general...