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flow stress

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This appendix contains flow stress data (in the form of flow curves) obtained by viscous pressure bulge tests conducted on various grades of sheet steel as well as aluminum and magnesium alloys. automotive sheet steels flow stress curves viscous pressure bulge test VISCOUS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... Abstract This chapter describes the formability and forming characteristics of low-carbon sheet steels, coated sheet steels, stainless steels, and aluminum and magnesium alloys. It provides property data as well as flow stress curves for numerous grades of each material and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... cause of springback and explains how to predict and compensating for its effects. advanced high-strength steel automotive sheet steels bending flanging flow stress springback stretching INCREASED REQUIREMENTS for vehicle safety and weight reduction in automotive design led to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter explains how to determine flow stress and forgeability using data from tensile tests, compression tests, ring tests, and torsion tests. It describes sample preparation, tooling and equipment, test procedures, error sources, and data plotting techniques. It also provides a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the role of inverse analysis in providing input data for finite element simulations of metal forming processes. It describes the basic procedures for determining flow stress and friction by inverse analysis and for comparing experimental measurements with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter covers the fundamentals of metal flow and the tools and techniques used to predict and control it. It begins by illustrating the local state of stress in a metal cylinder during upset forging and showing how stress components can be expressed in matrix form. It then...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter presents a relatively simple method for estimating forging loads and flow stresses. The method uses the slab analysis technique and accounts for material properties, friction and heat transfer, press ram speed, forging geometry, and billet and die temperatures. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., explaining how to estimate friction and flow stress and predict extrusion loads and energy requirements. The chapter also discusses the tooling used in cold forging, the parameters affecting tool life, and the relative advantages of warm forging. cold forging extrusion flow stress friction tool...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the role of plastic deformation in forging and the effect of strain and strain rate on metal flow. It demonstrates the use of stress tensors and shows how metal flow can be represented qualitatively by the displacement of volume elements and quantitatively by the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... each of the forging operations The interaction of the most significant variables in forging is shown in a simplified manner in Fig. 14.3 . It is seen that for a given billet material and part geometry, the ram speed of the forging machine influences the strain rate and flow stress. Ram speed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., velocities, strain rates, strains) between the deformed and undeformed part, i.e., predicting metal flow, (b) establishing the limits of formability or producibility, i.e., determining whether it is possible to form the part without surface or internal failure, and (c) predicting the forces and stresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... (Scientific Forming Technologies Corp.) [ SFTC, 2002 ]. In order to accurately predict the metal flow and forming loads, it is necessary to use reliable input data. The stress-strain relation or flow curve is generally obtained from a compression test. However, the test is limited in achievable strains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... σ ¯ is the flow stress of the workpiece, ε ¯ ˙ is the effective strain rate, Δ ε ¯ is the effective strain generated during Δt, A is a conversion factor between mechanical and thermal energies, c is the specific heat of the workpiece, ρ is the specific...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...] Dixit R. , Ngaile G. , Altan T. , “ Measurement of Flow Stress for Cold Forging, ” ERC/NSM-01-R-05, Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing . [Altan et al., 2003] Cho H. , Ngaile G. , Altan T. , “ Simultaneous Determination of Flow Stress and Interface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... , 1953 . [Kobayashi et al., 1989] Kobayashi S. , Oh S.I. , Altan T. , Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method , Oxford University Press , 1989 . [Lee et al., 1972] Lee C.H. , Altan T. , “ Influence of Flow Stress and Friction upon Metal Flow in Upset Forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... results in very high die stresses and hence calls for the material to be forged at elevated temperatures in order to reduce the flow stress, increase formability, and thus reduce die stresses. During hot forging, the heat transfer from the hot material to the colder dies can result in die chilling. Dies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.9781627083003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Measures, ” Technical Papers of the North American Manufacturing Research Institution of SME, 1996 , p 89 – 94 . [Douglas et al., 1975] Douglas J.R. , Altan T. , Flow Stress Determination for Metals at Forging Rates and Temperatures , Trans. ASME, J. Eng. Ind. , Feb 1975 , p 66...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... tolerances [ Dahl et al., 1998 , and Dahl et al., 1999 ]. Complex precision-forged parts are almost exclusively produced in closed dies. Therefore, the dies have to withstand high contact pressures well above the flow stress of the billet material at the forging temperature. Also, the amount of surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... available in the machine-tool market The behavior and characteristics of the forming machine influence: The flow stress and workability of the deforming material The temperatures in the material and in the tools, especially in hot forming The load and energy requirements for a given...