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fire resistance

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Published: 01 December 1989
Fig. 8.9. Comparison of fire-side corrosion resistance of various alloys ( Ref 43 ). More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article describes the basic approaches to improving the fire resistance of a polymeric material, considers the burning process on a microscale and macroscale, and discusses various test methods for determining the flammability characteristics of polymeric materials. Test methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is aggravated by galvanic contact. The resulting corrosion products are also harmful as well as unsightly. Fasteners should not be permitted to cause distortion of flat panels. Additional Service Considerations Fire Resistance Fire resistance is an important consideration in buildings. Stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of metal temperature tested for 10,000 h in the combustion zone in a boiler fired with fuel oil containing 2.65% S, 49 ppm V, and 44 ppm Na. Source: Ref 4 The plant exposure tests have shown that 9Cr and 12Cr ferritic steels are much more resistant to oil-ash corrosion than austenitic stainless...
Image
Published: 01 February 2005
Fig. 20.18 A two-part die heating system comprising gas-fired infrared heater and resistance heaters [ Shah, 1988 ] More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... at about the same rate. Studies indicate that ranking of fire resistance of thermoset resins is: Phenolic > Polyimide > Bismaleimide > Epoxy    > Vinyl Esters  >  Polyesters Cured phenolic resins do not ignite easily because of their high thermal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... competitor, gas-fired furnace heating. Several typical examples are provided to illustrate the economic considerations in design and application of induction heating processes. cost analysis gas-fired furnaces induction heating process economics Induction heating affords a rapid, efficient...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is kaolinite with some silica and feldspar fired at lower temperatures than other clay products. It is relatively weak with porosity of 5 to 20%. It may be left unglazed as in flowerpots and soil pipe, or it may be glazed to make it water resistant. Stoneware is fired at higher temperatures, which reduces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... 937, Test Method for Corrosion of Steel by Sprayed Fire-Resistive Material Applied to Structural Members • F 326, Test Method for Electronic Hydrogen Embrittlement Test for Cadmium Electroplating Processes • F 359, Practice for Static Immersion Testing of Unstressed Materials in Nitrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., hydrogen atoms can be absorbed at the surface and then diffuse into the metal. Hydrogen atoms in the metal then react with iron carbide forming methane gas which can accumulate at grain boundaries and other interfaces. The chapter describes two applications, one in coal-fired boilers, the other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
.... Relationship between hot-corrosion weight loss and temperature for ferritic steels ( Ref 41 ). Fig. 8.8. Relationship between hot-corrosion weight loss and chromium content for various alloys ( Ref 42 ). Fig. 8.9. Comparison of fire-side corrosion resistance of various alloys ( Ref 43...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., gas-fired, or lignite-fired boilers. Electric boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. They are also classified as subcritical, supercritical (SC), and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The basic difference between the three types is the operating temperatures and pressures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... cylindrical parts. Source: Ref 1 Regardless of size, furnaces may be directly fired with fuel, where the work is exposed to combustion gases, or indirectly fired where the work is separated from combustion gases. Furnaces may also be heated by electrical resistance. Ovens and Furnaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... in terms of its hardness, and abrasion or wear resistance. Erosion failure of boiler tubes can occur from the water or steam side, or from the fire side. The principal types of fire-side erosion mechanism are erosion due to soot blowing, fly ash attack, coal-particle impingement, falling slag...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... resistance to erosion attack, and Al 2 O 3 -forming alloys (CoCrAlY and Ni20Al) were much more resistant to erosion attack presumably due to formation of aluminum oxide scales. Ives ( Ref 24 ) conducted erosion tests in a combustion gas stream using a propane-fired abrasive jet rig at 975 °C (1790 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses material-related problems associated with coal-fired burners. It explains how high temperatures affect heat-absorbing surfaces in furnace combustion areas and in the convection pass of superheaters and reheaters. It describes how low-NOx combustion technology...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... burner adjustment; steam blanketing in horizontal or inclined tubes; and undesired channeling of fire-side gases. Superheater and reheater tubes generally fail after many years of service as a result of creep. Waterwall tubes also can fail from long-term overheating. Apart from a change...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... representative can help in this area. It is also useful to have an understanding of how suppliers produce their products. Resistors, for example, are usually purchased with a nominal resistance value and a tolerance expressed as a ± percentage of the nominal value. Resistor manufacturers produce a large lot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... to 0.8 μm. The tetragonal phase is very stable. Higher firing temperatures (1550 °C, or 2800 °F) result in a high-strength (1000 MPa, or 145 ksi), high-fracture-toughness (8.5 MPa  m , or 7.7 ksi  in . ), fine-grained material with excellent wear resistance. The microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... There is little doubt that the discovery that copper could be extracted from copper sulfide was not made in a deliberate quest for copper. Some think copper resulted when a fire was built beside an ore deposit; others suggest copper was produced by chemical reactions in early pottery kilns. However, in spite...