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finite-difference method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... of safety 5.4.4.1 Stress Analysis Finite Difference Method The finite difference method is a direct method of discretizing (assigning specific data values) using partial differential equations ( Ref 3 ). These equations are known as finite-difference equations. The method uses a simplified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... by several methods including the slab method, the slip-line method, the visioplasticity method, the upper-bound method, finite difference method, and the finite element method. The capabilities and characteristics of these methods are summarized in Table 9.1 [ Altan et al., 1979 ]. Characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... to the finite difference method or analytical differentiation of the FEM code in conducting sensitivity analysis. As a result of research, the identification software CART (Computer Aided Rheology and Tribology) was introduced [ Boyer & Massoni, 2001 ]. Pietrzyk et al. used inverse analysis technique...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... of these programs makes them better suited to jobbing foundries where many different parts need to be processed and computation time is an issue. On the other hand, sophisticated FEM (Finite Element Method) and FDM (Finite Difference Method) programs are based upon the simultaneous performance of complex heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... finite element method forming tools process simulation sheet metal forming springback UNTIL RECENTLY, the design of metal forming tools was based mainly on knowledge gained through experience and expensive trial-and-error processes. However, today the metal forming industry is making use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... of key process parameters including the draw ratio, material properties, geometry, interface conditions, equipment operating speed, and tooling. It then walks through the steps involved in predicting stress, strain, and punch force using the slab method and finite element analysis and presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... the number of forming stages in a multistep deep drawing problem. Kim et al. ( Ref 4.8 ) carried out tool design analysis for multistep drawing using the finite-element method (FEM). In these studies, only design improvements in existing multistep tooling were carried out. Case Study I: Progressive Die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of finite-element methods for modeling cold forging processes. The discussion covers process modeling inputs, such as geometric parameters, material properties, and interface conditions, and includes several application examples. cold forging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the thermodynamics of extrusion. It begins by presenting a thermodynamic model of the extrusion process expressed in the form of finite difference equations. It then explains how the model accounts for multiple sources of heat generation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... be processed. Materials that are brittle can also be processed. Future developments of this process appear to include: Lower-cost rivets, tools, and equipment Finite-element method simulations and calculations Lower joining forces; accessibility from one side New rivet shapes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract Hot stamping is a forming process for ultrahigh-strength steels (UHSS) that maximizes formability while minimizing springback. This chapter covers several aspects of hot stamping, including the methods used, the effect of process variables, and the role of finite-element analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... of the Ma p . The particle temperature calculations are performed numerically in parallel with the calculation of particle velocity, for example, using the finite-difference method. The 1-D calculations describe the flow only along the axis of a nozzle and do not consider heat and friction losses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... with stress profiles. It also describes how material-related factors, load history, corrosion, and temperature affect crack growth rates, and discusses the steps involved in life assessment. corrosion-fatigue damage tolerance analysis finite element method residual strength stress-intensity factor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... to the bending radius, t is the tube wall thickness, t o is the initial tube wall thickness, and θ is the degree of bend. For a complex bending operation, the finite-element method will provide a more accurate thickness distribution. Figure 9.14 shows the thickness distribution on the middle cross section...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... be characterized. Thus, the numerical analysis, such as finite element method, can carry out quantitative calculations at the interface between the objects that are in contact. The interface heat transfer coefficient, h, for hot forging application, is measured experimentally in a couple of different ways...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... on to analyze the stress state of load-bearing members, pressurized tubes, and pin-loaded lugs, accounting for the effect of geometric discontinuities, such as cutouts, fillets, and holes, as well as cracks. It also explains how finite element methods are used to solve problems involving complex geometric...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
.... Heating the sheet between heated tools: This method requires a press that would allow the press ram to stop and dwell before forming. Mechanics of Deformation One way to enhance formability in warm forming (deep drawing) is to cool and heat different portions of the sheet at the same time...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., the inner radius of the sheet is usually assumed to be known and constant over the bending area, but in practice, it varies over the bend, and the sheet may not have full contact with the tool. The finite-element method can give results that are much more accurate if used carefully in cases in which sheet...
Book Chapter

By Soumya Subramonian
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Different Zones of a Part Edge The shear edge is made of different zones based on the method of material deformation that has occurred. The ratio of the different zones is influenced by different parameters, such as the punch-die clearance, material properties, and punch corner radius, to name a few...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... as possible and that axial stress waves are not generated ( Ref 7 ). Interpretation of experiments using thinner flyer plates is more complex, because a computer code must be used to calculate the stress history on the spall plane. Finite difference codes ( Ref 9 ) or method of characteristics codes ( Ref...