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film radiography

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and the characteristics of x-ray film. It provides information on various exposure factors in film radiography. The chapter provides a description of the characteristics that differentiate neutron radiography from x-ray or gamma ray radiography. The application of neutron radiography is described in terms of its...
Image
Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 4.24 Void content versus joint length for a range of representative solders. The substrates were square coupons of polished alumina metallized with thin-film titanium/gold, applied by sputtering. The joints were made at a superheat of 25 °C, and the void level was assessed by quantitative More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... portions of a testpiece absorb different amounts of penetrating radiation. Unabsorbed radiation passing through the part can be recorded on film or photosensitive paper, viewed on a fluorescent screen, or monitored by various types of radiation detectors. The term radiography usually implies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of normal light bulbs, then the density is much too low. As an alternative to film radiography, where it can take 20 min to develop a radiograph that can be viewed, radioscopy offers images in real time. The images are created on x-ray-sensitive screens that can be intensified and scanned with a camera...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... potential flaws and damage is shown in Fig. 12.1 . During ply collation, foreign objects are the most serious issue. These include the backing paper or plastic liner on the prepreg, lay-up materials such as release films and tapes, and tools such as knife blades. Since these can cause serious delaminations...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... permanently on a film or examined on a fluorescent screen. In x-radiography, the size of the flaw can be estimated by using penetrameters. Gamma rays have greater penetrating power than do x-rays and hence can be used for thicker sections. They are obtained by the radioactive decay of isotopes such as cobalt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence from an external power source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... as long as the interfacial crack breaks the surface. They are completely ineffective for defects that have no path to the surface. Conventional film radiography is not suitable for detecting the extremely small defects involved in diffusion welding, but the use of x-ray microfocus techniques coupled...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... with low-energy laser for accurate aiming. Filmless radiography has also been introduced ( Figure 15-15 ) for examining up to 2 in. (51 mm) thick casting sections. The image is projected on a fluorescent screen, rather than being reproduced on film. Fig. 15-14 A 12,500 lb compressor case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in reduced attenuation of the rays, and the x-ray film will be darker in this region. A thin crack perpendicular to the x-ray will hardly influence attenuation and will not be detected. Fig. 7 Schematic of flaws and their x-ray images. Defect types that can be detected by x-ray radiography are those...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...; laminations; hydrogen cracking Radiography Changes in density from voids, inclusions, material variations; placement of internal parts Can be used to inspect wide range of materials and thicknesses; versatile; film provides record of inspection Radiation safety requires precautions; expensive; detection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... contrast differences between the different phases of constituents. These methods include etching, thin-film formation, or special illumination modes with light microscopes. Of the various contrasting techniques, chemical recipes for etching the surface are the oldest. Etching even precedes Sorby...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., leak paths, and other conditions not readily apparent using visual or other assessment techniques. Techniques in this area include x-ray and n-ray radiography, dye penetrant inspection, fluorescent dye pressure testing, and magnafluxing. Mechanical and environmental approaches for evaluating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... This chapter describes the causes and control of porosity and inclusions in aluminum castings as well as the combined effects of hydrogen, shrinkage, and inclusions on the properties of aluminum alloys. In addition, it discusses the applications of radiography to reveal internal discontinuities in aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... converter and a television camera, is a rapidly developing method for weld inspection. One of the main advantages of real-time radiography for weld inspection is the cost savings that results from reducing the use of x-ray films. However, the possibility of expanding such an inspection system to include...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... ), which also includes a scale factor to account for the formation of protective carbonate films that lead to a reduced corrosion rate at higher temperatures. Fig. 1 CO 2 corrosion nomogram. Source: Ref 2 The correlation given in Eq 5 describes CO 2 -based corrosion. There have been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... wrappers, papers, or inhibited organic films is advisable when adverse conditions cannot be avoided. Mechanical Damage Mechanical damage can be easily avoided by good housekeeping practices, proper equipment, and proper protection during transportation. When transporting flat sheets or plates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... transducers and parts being inspected. Reference standards are needed, both for calibrating the equipment and for characterizing flaws. Radiography Radiography uses x-rays or gamma rays, which are directed through the sample to a photographic film. After the film has been developed, it can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... be followed to ensure consistent quality of the technique and film. This standard test method has enough latitude that few, if any, deviations should be needed for most casting radiography. There is a tendency on the part of some casting buyers to forget that radiographic film is a means to an end...