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film formation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... then discusses the principles of shadow formation, the process involved in the conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation, and the characteristics of x-ray film. It provides information on various exposure factors in film radiography. The chapter provides a description of the characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... bath conditions Table 11.1 Low-temperature salt bath and acid bath conditions Sample composition Scale formation temperature Salt bath immersion time (a) , min Acid cleaning bath time (b) , min Acid cleaning bath time (c) , sec °C °F Ti-6Al-4V 650 1200 2 2 30 Ti-8Al-1Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Abstract Abstract Steel heated in contact with air at temperatures in the tempering range takes on various temper colors due to the formation of a thin oxide film. This appendix provides information on the cause and source of oxidation of steel and time-temperature effect on SAE 1035 steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... on spray forming and consolidation by atmospheric pressure, and includes a section on powder-based disk components, where it discusses the general advantages of P/M as well as the effects of inclusions, carbon contamination, and the formation of oxide and carbide films due to prior particle boundary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... of the intermingling of the film adhesive/prepreg resin system. It discusses the causes and effects of honeycomb core movement, which results in core crush. The chapter also explains the formation of a void in honeycomb composites and the failure mechanisms in honeycomb sandwich structure composites. failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... mechanism of SCC and flat slot formation as proposed in Ref 60 Fig. 34 Tarnish rupture models. (a) Schematic of the tarnish rupture model for SCC as proposed in Ref 64 . (b) Modified tarnish rupture model of SCC for systems with intergranular oxide film penetration ( Ref 66 , 67 ) Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... . The colors produced are correlated to thickness and treatment parameters ( Ref 2 ) as shown in Table 2 . Rocha-Fila et al. confirmed that these coloring treatments did not degrade the pitting corrosion resistance since their formation mechanism more closely resembles passive film formation than oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... in the formation of a film on the metal surface. These films may be passivating layers, tarnish films, or dealloyed layers. In many cases, these films reduce the rate of general or uniform corrosion, making the alloy desirable for resistance to uniform corrosion in the environment. As a result, SCC is of greatest...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the schematic form shown in Fig. 7.2 are shown in Fig. 7.3 ( Ref 3 ). Fig. 7.2 Schematic representation of shapes of pit initiation and propagation Fig. 7.3 Stages of penetration of passive film leading to corrosion pit formation. (a) Initial stage of pit formation. (b) Partially perforated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... gas. The polarization of bare aluminum is essentially impossible to determine because of the rapid formation of an oxide film on contact with air and the persistence of the film in aqueous solutions. This high reactivity relates to the very negative aluminum half-cell potential of –1662 mV (SHE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
...–15.8 17.1–17.4 2F2T 16.8–16.9 18.5–18.6 Well-developed networks of thin discontinuous carbides 2F1T 17.6–19.0 19.4–20.9 3F1T 18.4–19.4 20.2–21.3 ... 17.5–17.7 19.4–19.6 Source: Ref 6 Variables affecting the surface carbide film formation of a high-speed steel oil...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... the more amorphous form of Ti 2 O 3 known as anatase, or promote formation of a mixture of rutile and anatase. Although these naturally formed films are typically less than 10 nm thick and are invisible to the eye, the TiO 2 oxide is generally chemically resistant and is attacked by very few substances...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... is strongly oxidizing. This actually promotes the passive film formation; consequently, even low-chromium alloys remain passive at all concentrations at ambient temperature (see Fig. 14 ) ( Ref 8 ). While a stainless steel vessel may not be intended to be used for hydrochloric acid, resistance to lesser...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...: D. desulfuricans ) 4–8 10–40 50–105 Anaerobic Iron and steel, stainless steels, aluminum, zinc, copper alloys Use hydrogen in reducing \fa\ to S 2− and H 2 S; promote formation of sulfide films Desulfotomaculum (best known: D. nigrificans , also known as Clostridium ) 6–8 10–40 (some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... (including hydrogen embrittlement, hydrogen-induced blistering, high-temperature hydrogen attack, and hydride formation). All these forms are addressed in this chapter in the context of aqueous corrosion. For each form, a general description is provided along with information on the causes and the list...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... recognized for their superior corrosion resistance in many aggressive environments compared to common engineering metals. This resistance stems from the ability of titanium, as a reactive metal, to readily passivate in oxygen-containing media by forming a tenacious, coherent, self-healing oxide surface film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
.../S0043-1648(96)07270-5 51. Bahadur S. , Gong D. , and Anderegg J.W. , The Role of Copper Compounds as Fillers in Transfer Film Formation and Wear of Nylon , Wear , Vol 154 , 1992 , p 207 – 223 10.1016/0043-1648(92)90155-2 52. Moet A. , Failure Analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of hydrocarbons augments film formation and persistence. Bactericides are chemicals that kill or control microorganisms. Many of the chemicals are surface-active cationic materials and must be used with care relative to compatibility with anionic chemicals, such as scale inhibitors. The most common surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... passivity in aqueous media and encourages the formation of protective oxide films at high temperatures. The aqueous corrosion resistance of these alloys is enhanced by the tungsten (and, in some cases, molybdenum) additions. However, in the high-carbon cobalt alloys, significant amounts of chromium...