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field ionization

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... junction leakage. (a) High angle annular dark field (HAADF) or mass contrast image from a planar sample and, (b) HAADF and Bright Field (BF) images from a cross-section sample extracted from the planar sample. In cross-sectional TEM, the thin section is perpendicular to the surface of the wafer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The characteristics include: conductivity of the solution, acidity and alkalinity, oxidizing power, degree of ionization, and solubility in the solution. These characteristics, in combination with the characteristics of the metal, will determine the corrosion behavior of a metal/environment combination. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... analysis lab for high resolution imaging. Other tools such as TEM or AFM may have higher ultimate resolution, but the SEM is more generally useful because of simple sample preparation, high depth of field, and ease of navigation. For comparison, TEM requires thinning a sample to 100 nm or less...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... in which a portion of the depositing material from an evaporation or sputtering source is deliberately ionized. Once charged, the ions can be accelerated with an electric field so that the impingement energy on the substrate is greatly increased, producing modification of the microstructure as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... cavity of the assembly permits the use of induction for local heating of the area to be joined. Toilet-tank floats have been made in this manner ( Fig. 11.1 ) by using a steel wire ring inserted where the two float halves join. Placing the wire ring in an induction field causes it to heat rapidly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.edfatr.t56090091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-462-8
... used for the past few decades and severely degrades the performance of others. This chapter provides an overview of EFI methods that are still applicable to ICs with BPD networks, including e-beam and atomic force probing, x-ray and magnetic field imaging, and lock-in thermography. It assesses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... ionization potential, argon promotes easy arc starting and stable arc operation. Its lower thermal conductivity promotes the development of axial “spray” transfer in certain forms of GMAW. It is also used in applications where base material distortion must be controlled or where good gap-bridging ability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... 30 keV. Ionization damage, however, may be challenging to manage at low energies (Ref 8), although workarounds for beam-sensitive samples can sometimes be implemented. STEM-in-SEM also has the potential to provide better image resolution than conventional SE imaging (~0.7 nm resolution is possible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... packaging and back-end-of-line (BEOL) components. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and electron-cyclotron resonance (ECR) are the most prevalent Xe PFIB sources [2 , 3] . Both sources ionize a gas to generate plasma from which the ion beam is extracted. The attributes of the ICP Xe ion plasma source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... with aluminum (6.00) and is sharply different from lithium (1.67), magnesium (3.07), and calcium (2.02). Beryllium is chemically similar to aluminum. A comparison of the first and second ionization potentials ( Table 8.1 ) between beryllium and other close-packed hexagonal elements suggests that beryllium...
Book Chapter

By J. W. Ekin
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... Abstract The chapter presents an overview of the properties and operational limits of superconductive materials, as well as techniques used to fabricate practical superconducting wires. It introduces six properties: critical temperature, critical magnetic field, critical current density...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... heat sources used are generally natural gas, propane, or electrical, although the energy source for process heating can sometimes be laser, molten salts, electron beam, or an oscillating electrical field (as for induction processes). The methods of gas heating the work are either by direct-fired...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... The electron temperature T e is usually much higher than thermal conditions of the IC. T e represents the increased kinetic energy that the electrons pick up by passing through the high field zone of the pinched off channel thus producing hot electrons or impact ionization. The electron distribution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... bombardment of materials are of two types: characteristic and Bremsstrahlung. Characteristic x-rays occur when an incoming high energy electron collides with an atom and ejects an electron from an inner shell leaving a vacancy, see Figure 1 . This vacancy or “inner shell ionization” will be filled when...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... worn parts of almost any metal, and can be applied by hand or by robots, in the field or in the factory. Because of these capabilities, the technology has increased part life, improved efficiency, and reduced repair costs in the aircraft, automotive, mining, and power generation industries, as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... field to the surface unless it is removed by saturating the material with magnetism. Radiographic Testing Radiographic testing, in the past, has formed the basis of weld inspection for internal flaws. However, it is an expensive method, and increasing restrictions on the use of ionizing radiation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... exposed to ionizing irradiation ( Ref 6.1 – 6.5 ). This broad interpretation attributes to IASCC all instances of environmental cracking accelerated by radiation, whether acting singly or conjointly in altering water chemistry, material microchemistry, material hardness, creep behavior, and so on. While...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
...-magnetic fields, from which the sensors must be shielded. High acoustic emissions during the process and the necessity of evacuating the air from the die before the forming operation are other disadvantages of high-velocity forming technologies. 11.1 High-Velocity Hydroforming High-velocity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... ). The magnetic fields, applied by permanent magnets, trap secondary electrons generated by the target and greatly increase ionization in the cathode plasma. Thus, more argon ions strike the target, and sputtering and deposition rates are significantly increased relative to diode sputtering. Fig. 22.7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1