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fiber-reinforced composite stress-strain relationship

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... stronger than the baseline/unreinforced matrix material. Because of the mechanical properties of the fibers, most composites maintain an elastic behavior in their stress-strain relationship. Many types of composite systems have been developed. Detailed descriptions of the fiber and the matrix materials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... contraction in the y -direction, and the distorted element remains rectangular. Therefore, the coupling effects exhibited by composites occur only if stress and strain are referenced to a non–principal material coordinate system. Thus, when the fibers are aligned parallel (0°) or perpendicular (90°) to the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... aramid, strain the matrix less during fatigue cycling and are thus more fatigue resistant. In addition, glass fiber composites are subject to static fatigue or stress rupture. Static fatigue is the time-dependent fracture of a material under a constant load, as opposed to the cyclic load employed in a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.9781627083386
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of fibers with respect to sliding direction: AP, antiparallel; P, parallel; and N, normal. HS CF and HM CF, high-strength and high-modulus carbon fibers; SF, short fiber; BD, bidirectional; ε f , fracture strain; and E , Young’s modulus. 1, abrasive of larger size; 2, nonabrasive filler/solid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... loads. On the basis of continuum solid mechanics, working solutions of stress/strain and load relationships for some structural elements are derived and presented. In this chapter, the phenomena of deformation and fracture are discussed in more detail for metals and engineering alloys. Many factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... factors that influence them. It explains how cold working increases dislocation density and how that affects the stress-strain characteristics of steel, particularly the onset of deformation. It describes the effects of deformation on ferrite, austenite, cementite, and pearlite, and how to optimize their...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... observed. The resultant stress decreases as a function of time. The apparent modulus, calculated as the ratio of the stress to the strain at a given point, also varies as a function of time. The time-dependent Young’s modulus, E ( t ), is found from the relationship: E ( t ) = σ ( t...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fiber-to-matrix debonding, crack deflection, fiber bridging, and fiber pull-out. A notional stress-strain curve for a monolithic ceramic and a ceramic-matrix composite is shown in Fig. 3 . Because the area under the stress-strain curve is often considered as an indication of toughness, the large...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... thermoplastics, semicrystalline thermoplastics, and thermosets. For some conditions, the time and temperature dependence of the relationship between stress and strain may be superposable and therefore essentially equivalent. Time- and temperature-dependent viscoelastic properties can be examined experimentally...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... be wound with hoop fibers only. In some cases, a laminated tube with interspersed [±θ] or [±θ/90] construction is used, as discussed subsequently. When no standard exists, a stress analysis of the specimen and loading condition is required in order to understand the stress and strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... cause of residual stresses in composite parts is the thermal mismatch between the fibers and the resin matrix. Recall that the residual stress on a simple constrained bar is: (Eq 7.19) σ = α   E Δ T where: σ = residual stress α = coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) E...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... aluminum is shown in Fig. 6 . Table 1 Composites vs. metals comparison Condition Comparative behavior relative to metals Load-strain relationship More linear strain to failure Notch sensitivity Static Greater sensitivity Fatigue Less sensitivity Transverse properties Much...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
..., plasticization, incorporation of additives, and foaming. A typical plot of stress versus strain behavior for an engineering thermoplastic is shown in Fig. 15 . This classic relationship is characterized by a linear region (shown as segment AB), which is called the linear viscoelastic region...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
.... 9.23 Finite-element model of a typical pressure vessel Fig. 9.24 Pressurized deflections for a typical pressure vessel A typical comparison between predicted and measured strain response is shown in Fig. 9.25 . These comparisons are for an intermediate-modulus carbon-fiber/epoxy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... through the relationship a 0 = 4 d 0 . However, in the following discussion, we will use the correlation coefficient C . The relationships between the strengths of bolted joints in ductile metals, composites, and brittle materials are shown in Fig. 17.7 . For metals under high stresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... employs higher pressures. The relationship between flow stress of the billet MMC and the extrusion variables, such as temperature, strain, and strain rate, is important in determining the extrudability of the MMC for a required shape. Due to the presence of ceramic particulate reinforcement, MMCs have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... strains in each material are equal. In the composite, the matrix resin acts as an adhesive to pass load from one fiber ply to the next. Because the matrix shear stiffness is low, the composite plies deform unequally in tension. Failure tends to initiate in the composite ply next to the adhesive near the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... weight determinations is very important because it directs processing efforts while explaining the functional properties of the composition. Certainly there are as many disagreements or uncertainties as there are agreements on these relationships. According to Bikales ( Ref 22 ), the more generally...