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fiber orientation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...Abstract Abstract Analyzing the structure of composite materials is essential for understanding how the part will perform in service. Assessing fiber volume variations, void content, ply orientation variability, and foreign object inclusions helps in preventing degradation of composite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the effect of fiber length and orientation on the strength and stiffness of discontinuous-fiber composites. It also describes several fabrication processes, including spray-up, compression molding, reaction injection molding, and injection molding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., and high-temperature and corrosion behaviors are determined by the orientation, shape, and spacing of fibers, the number of plies, resin properties, and consolidation and forming methods. The chapter also covers secondary fabrication processes, such as thermoforming, machining, and joining, as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., and orthotropic materials, the orientation of plies in unidirectional (lamina) and quasi-isotropic (laminate) lay-ups, and the dominant role of fibers in determining strength, stiffness, and other lamina properties. The chapter also compares the engineering attributes of composites with those of metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... and stiffness, among other properties, in preferred directions and locations. This chapter discusses the processes and procedures used in the production of fiber-reinforced aluminum and titanium metal-matrix composites. It explains how the length and orientation of reinforcing fibers affect the properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... and the effect on engineering properties. Methods of detecting and measuring internal stresses are also presented. The article then describes the combined effects of thermal stresses and orientation that result from processing conditions. Finally, it discusses numerous aspects of physical aging and the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... laminate in Fig. 25 . Extensive diagonal shear cracks occur in the matrix between the transverse-oriented fibers, that is, the fibers oriented normal to the plane. Extensive delamination has also taken place in the matrix between the plies. In most instances of low-velocity impact, the damage is confined...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... , is the structural loading direction or the direction in which loads are applied to the ply. The angle θ between the x -axis and the 1-axis is called the fiber orientation angle . By convention, the sign of the angle depends on the right-hand coordinate system that is specified. If the 1- and z -axes point...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... in most cases for viewing fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. When using bright-field illumination, it is essential that the specimen be oriented 90 degrees to the light path. The light is reflected from a half-mirror through the lens, off the sample, and back through the lens to the eye. Therefore...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... indicates the effect of size, orientation, hardness, modulus, and brittleness of the fiber on the abrasive wear performance of the composites ( Ref 2 ). The performance of the composites generally deteriorates in the case of SFRPs. An increase in wear performance was reported for seven composites...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... of the constituents. A composite laminate can be built to any thickness, and the fibers may be oriented to achieve the desired strength and stiffness. Although this design freedom increases the number of choices, it also makes the process more complex. This chapter will cover, to a very limited extent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... preparing ultrathin sections, the orientation of the section relative to the fiber alignment is a major consideration for fiber-reinforced composites. The angle at which the section is taken is important when quantifying anomalies such as voids and microcracks. If extensive microcracking of the resin matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... be more susceptible to degradation than the bulk matrix ( Ref 4 ). Also, fiber orientation is known to influence the degradation behavior ( Ref 3 , 5 ). Heat Effects on Composite Material Surfaces The proper selection of the matrix material for the environment in which a component is to be used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... can be particles, whiskers, or fibers. Particles have no preferred orientation and provide minimal improvements in mechanical properties. They are frequently used as fillers to reduce the cost of the material. Whiskers are single crystals that are extremely strong but are difficult to disperse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
..., or machine, the outer surface smooth after cure. Fiber orientation can be a problem for some filament-wound designs; the minimum fiber angle that can usually be wound is 10 to 15 degrees due to slippage of the fiber bands at the mandrel ends. However, schemes such as inserting temporary pins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
...; whether or not the fibers are in an orderly arrangement or are randomly oriented; the amount or volume percentage of the fiber reinforcement; the strength and stiffness of the matrix; whether the loading is static or fluctuating; and the specific operating temperature and environment. Some comparative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... referred to as short beam shear , is covered in ASTM D 2344 and SACMA SRM-8. The geometry depends on the thickness, with a span-to-thickness ratio of four to one recommended. The width is a minimum of 0.25 in. (0.6 cm). Although any fiber orientation except a 90-degree lamina can be used, the normal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... the morphology of the voids. Frequently, it is assumed that the voids are spherical in nature due to only sectioning the composite perpendicular to the fiber orientation, as shown in Fig. 8.8(a) . However, this is often not the case, as revealed in Fig. 8.8(b) . This section was taken parallel to the fiber...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., due to the lower aspect ratio and more random orientation of the reinforcements. Fig. 8.1 Common forms of composites containing unidirectional high-strength/high-modulus fibers embedded in a softer matrix. (a) Straight, continuous fibers. (b) Discontinuous or chopped fibers Among...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Using EMPA (WDS) manganese segregation was identified: (Mn average = 1.0% Mn segregate = 1.8%). Etchant: nital 2%. Fig. 11.54 Cross sections of parts produced by closed die forging. Fiber orientation is clearly visible. The fibers are not cut, indicating a good forging design. For improved...