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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The existence of austenite and ferrite, along with carbon alloying, is fundamental in the heat treatment of steel. In view of the importance of structure and its formation to heat treatment, this chapter describes the various microstructures that form in steels, the various factors...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract Metallurgy, as discussed in this chapter, focuses on phases normally encountered in stainless steels and their characteristics. This chapter describes the thermodynamics and the three basic phases of stainless steels: ferrite, austenite, and martensite. Formation of the principal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the composition and classification of stainless steels and focuses on the processes involved in heat treatment and applications of these steels. The wrought and the cast stainless steels covered are ferritic, austenitic, duplex (ferritic-austenitic), martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the alloy composition, metallurgy, mechanical behavior, stabilization, texture, anisotropy, high-temperature properties, and corrosion and oxidation resistance of ferritic stainless steels. ferritic stainless steels alloy composition mechanical behavior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the characteristics of eutectoid transformations, a type of solid-state transformation associated with invariant reactions, focusing on the iron-carbon system of steel. It describes the compositions, characteristics, and properties of ferrite, eutectoid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... weldment. These include poor workmanship, a variety of hydrogen-assisted cracking failures, stress-corrosion cracking, fatigue, and solidification cracking in steel welds. Hydrogen-assisted cracking can appear in four common forms, namely underbead or delayed cracking, weld metal fisheyes, ferrite vein...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article covers the metallurgy and properties of stainless steels. It provides composition information on all types of ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels, including proprietary and nonstandard grades, along with corresponding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170614
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... phosphorus irons, low-carbon and silicon steels, ferritic stainless steels, and nickel-iron and iron-cobalt alloys. alloying magnetically soft iron alloys ferromagnetic properties Composition Magnetic metals and alloys are broadly classified into two groups with either hard or soft...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... confused. Most of the information in the chapter is of a practical nature, covering application-oriented topics such as isothermal transformation (IT) and continuous transformation (CT) diagrams which are used to predict and control the rate of formation of ferrite, pearlite, and bainite. The chapter also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Abstract Stainless steels derive their name from their corrosion-resisting properties first observed in 1912. Two groups, working independently, concurrently discovered what came to be known as austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. Martensitic and precipitation-hardened stainless steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes involved in heat treating of stainless steels, providing information on the classification, chemical compositions, and corrosion resistance of stainless steels. Five groups of stainless steels are discussed: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... groups of stainless steels are discussed: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation-hardening, and duplex grades. The chapter also describes the heat treatment conditions that should be maintained for processing of stainless steels. chemical composition corrosion resistance heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., nitriding, and ferritic nitrocarburizing to provide an accurate heat treating process evaluation. This appendix briefly describes the advantages and selection and design considerations of test coupons. A typical example of the use of test pins for monitoring carburizing and hardening of gears is provided...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses different thermal processes applicable to the various alloy groups of stainless steels, namely austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex stainless steels. The processes discussed include soaking, annealing, stress relieving...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... a general description of the machining behavior of the stainless steel families, namely ferritic, martensitic, austenitic, precipitation hardening, duplex, and super stainless steels. The beneficial effect of controlled inclusions is then discussed. The chapter ends with a section providing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of the categories of stainless steels, namely austenitic, duplex, ferritic, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening stainless steels. This is followed by a discussion of the selection criteria for materials to be welded. Various welding processes used with stainless steel are then described. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables listing the composition of austenitic, ferrite, martensitic, precipitation-hardenable, and duplex stainless steels and of Alloy Casting Institute heat- and corrosion-resisting casting alloys. chemical composition austenitic stainless steel duplex...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... ferrite. Another name for ferrite is alpha iron, or α-iron, where α is the Greek symbol for the first letter in the Roman alphabet, “a.” Fig. 1.2 Crystal structure of the grains and the nature of the grain boundaries The nature of a grain boundary is illustrated at the bottom center of Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... mixture of ferrite and austenite in their structure gives them higher strength than either phase by itself. Duplex alloys have at least 20% chromium, so they are considered as highly corrosion-resistant alloys but not high-temperature alloys because of embrittling phases. Their low nickel content makes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... which the carbon (C) atoms are dissolved into the solid iron. The individual carbon atoms lie in the holes between the iron atoms of the crystalline grains of austenite (high temperatures) or ferrite (low temperatures). If the amount of carbon dissolved in the molten iron is kept below 2.1 weight...