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fail-passive designs

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870489
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... the most severe environmental conditions for the structure. However, to ensure that the structure will not fail at this ultimate load condition, a safety factor is applied. A typical safety factor for aircraft structures is 1.5. Therefore, if the design limit load (DLL) is the maximum load anticipated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... from an economizer coil failed due to leakage. The failure was noticed during the first hydro test after erection. The tube was never subjected to operation. As per the specifications, the MOC of the tube was SA 210M Grade A1 steel, and the tube dimensions were 38.1 mm (1.5 in.) OD and 4.06 mm (0.16...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., such as carbon steel, can fail rapidly if coupled to stainless. A classic example is the use of carbon steel fasteners for joining stainless sheets. Different stainless steel alloys have minor differences when passive, but if the environment is such that one alloy is active while another is passive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., galvanized steel, and austenitic stainless steel ladders under load and exposed to flame temperatures of more than 1000 °C (1830 °F). The plastic and aluminum ladders failed in less than a minute. The galvanized carbon steel lasted 5 min, while the stainless steel remained intact ( Ref 10 ). If the need...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... For a given corrosivity, the dashed lines intersecting the rate-of-attack curve define the boundary between acceptable and unacceptable materials. Those materials to the left of this boundary have insufficient corrosion resistance and will fail, whereas those materials to the right of this boundary have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and Practice ”, John Wiley & Sons. Ltd. Chichester, U.K. , pgs. 25 - 60 ( 1991 ) 3. Faucher M. , “ Pattern Recognition of Bit Fail Maps ”. International Test Conference Proceedings , pgs. 460 - 463 ( 1983 ) 4. Viacroze T. , Fourquet G. , Lequex M. , “ An Expert...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... composites undergo extremely severe corrosion in marine environments when the graphite and the aluminum are mutually exposed. Aluminum surface foils have provided 20 months of protection to MMCs, assuming there is no graphite-aluminum exposure. However, the composite will start to fail upon foil penetration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... (85) 234 (34) 40 B2 (weldment) 592 (86) 238 (34.6) 40 B3 (weldment) 544 (79) 109 (15.8) 20 B4 (weldment) 751 (76) 105 (15.2) 20 (a) A single specimen stressed at 50% of yield strength failed in 687 hours with the gage section greatly reduced due to corrosion. Source: Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to the various activities have been outlined. The key item for consideration is that the pace of technology development continues to accelerate, and, with it, the need for timely, cost-efficient Failure Analysis. “When all else fails - ask yourself: ‘How would I do this if I were running the business out of my...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...-temperature plastics were tried, but failed joints in them caused their recall after several fatalities were reported. High-efficiency (90% or higher) furnaces can use low-temperature plastic pipe, but these units require the use of a corrosion-resistant secondary heat exchanger to recover the latent heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... problems in cathodic-protection systems. Figure 1(a) shows an arrangement in which stray currents were produced when the owner of a buried tank installed cathodic protection, not knowing of the presence of a nearby pipeline. The pipeline rapidly failed by corrosion because of the stray currents...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... environment. For example, Fig. 15.11 shows the classic pattern of stress-corrosion crack branching in a type 316L stainless steel. The component was a perforated screen that held activated charcoal to recover toluene (solvent for printing ink). The screen failed prematurely within one year following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Any distance between probing area and falling area possible In large falling areas it can be searched for AVC by stage moving Tilting in Dualbeam tools possible Probing and failing area must be in the range of beam shift No tilting Device Characterization Well suited Well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... discussed here. Examining and documenting the failed component in as-received condition, such as physical anomalies and damage, orientation on the board, condition of the surrounding parts, and so on, are crucial, as these provide invaluable information. Understanding, documenting and in many instances...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Root cause of failure in automotive electronics cannot be explained by the failure signatures of failed devices. Deeper investigations in these cases reveals that a superimposition of impact factors, which can never be represented by usual qualification testing, caused the failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... schematic and layout to investigate IC defects and also the ability to link to FA equipment in order to position the stage at the exact location of interest on the failing device under test (DUT). Even at the accurate location, it is very difficult and sometimes impossible to see the small areas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...-chromium alloys High-temperature oxidizing atmospheres Chromium, which forms a protective film Nickel-molybdenum alloys Oxygen at high temperature Molybdenum The term hydrogen damage has been used to designate a number of processes in metals by which the load...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
..., or iridium produces similar results. Table 14.17 Resistance of titanium alloys to crevice corrosion in boiling salt solutions Boiling solution pH Titanium grade 2 Titanium grade 12 Titanium grade 7 Saturated ZnCl 2 3.0 Failed Resistant Resistant 10% MgCl 2 4.2 Failed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... increase in the number of design rules for a modern application specific IC (ASIC) to expand to nearly 100,000 on average, far beyond what a human designer can manage [3] . More than 60 percent of first silicon designs fail testing; recent survey results show that 84% of FPGA design projects have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of critical components such as pumps and heat exchangers may necessitate large sections of a process or entire plants to become inoperative, leading to costs associated with lost production far in excess of the cost of replacement of the failed component. Process design and materials selection to minimize...