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extraction and refining

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of the Bronze Age, extraction of metals from their respective ores, and the discovery of modern metals such as chromium, vanadium, platinum, and titanium. extraction and refining THE ANCIENT WORLD passed from the Stone Age through the Bronze and Iron Ages to our modern developed society—a society...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter provides a fundamental understanding of beryllium reduction thermodynamics as a prerequisite for subsequent chapters on extraction, chemical processing, and corrosion. It examines a number of reduction methods along with a potential refining process, highlighting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter describes some of the chemical processes that have been developed to extract beryllium from different types of ore. It covers the Kjellgren-Sawyer sulfate method, the Degussa method, Copaux-Kawecki fluoride extraction, solvent extraction, and leaching and settling. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
..., molten metal treatment, control of inclusions, ingot grain refinement, and direct chill (DC) or continuous casting. aluminum alloys belt casters continuous casting direct chill ingot casting inclusions melting molten metal processing scrap charging Direct chill (DC) ingots used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... vacuum induction melting, vacuum arc melting, and electron beam melting, and some of the ways they have been used to cast beryllium alloys. The chapter also includes information on metal purification and grain refinement procedures. beryllium casting grain refinement ingots melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... advancements that led from open hearth steelmaking to basic oxygen processes and ultimately the electric arc furnace (EAF). It describes the versatility, efficiency, and scalability of the EAF process and its impact on recycling and sustainability. It explains how EAF refining and deoxidation practices have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the process steps in the production of smelter grade aluminum, the environmental issues with aluminum production, and the importance of recycling. It also provides a discussion on the refining, or Bayer, process and the smelting, or Hall-Héroult, process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... of cast products is also included. aluminum-silicon casting alloys expendable mold grain refinement inclusions melt treatment porosity reusable mold shape casting shape-casting applications solidification Examples of (a) aluminum cast components by sand-mold casting. Courtesy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
.... 5.4 Relationship of pore volume to cooling rate for different hydrogen contents in Al-4.7Mg alloy (similar to alloy 514.0). Hydrogen content (cm 3 /100 g): 1, 0.31 (no grain refiner); 2, 0.31 (grain refined); 3, 0.22 (grain refined); 4, 0.18 (grain refined); 5, 0.10 (grain refined) Fig. 5.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... by-products, such as tar, are also extracted for further refining and sale. After carbonization, the coke is pushed out of the ovens and cooled. Limestone, mainly calcium carbonate, is added as a flux for easier melting and slag formation. The slag floats on top of the molten iron and absorbs many...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., which may be remelted several times to achieve the necessary properties. It also discusses the cause of defects and ingot imperfections and the benefits of billet reduction and grain-refinement processes. billets ingots mill products titanium alloys titanium sponge vacuum arc remelting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
.... It then discusses the influence of casting variables, including pouring temperature and cooling rate, and operating considerations such as the make-up of charge materials, fluxing and degassing procedures, and grain refining. The chapter also provides information on vertical and horizontal casting systems, billet...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... distance and density measurements, observe structures with volume rendering, and extract slices in arbitrary direction to observe “virtual” cross-sectional details. A selection of examples for this work flow is given in figure 3 . The images show a state-of-the-art packaging build up and points out...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
.... 3-22 Spray-formed rolls. Source: Ref 29 The benefits of Osprey tool steels are similar to those of P/M product and likewise stem from the refinement of structure obtained by the process. Large volumes of gas used in Osprey processing, sometimes a 1:1 basis per pound of metal, extract...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... the aluminum eating utensils for his favored guests. By 1859, further improvements to the extraction and refining processes brought the price down to about $40/kg, but this was still too expensive for aluminum to be used as an industrial metal. Origins of the Industry The problem of finding a low-cost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... applications and secondary alloys for a commercial grade of castings. The microstructure requirements and the metal treatment such as degassing, filtration, grain refinement, and silicon modification are process elements whose costs need to be accounted for. Alloying needs: The furnace selection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... gradient at the liquid-solid interface during solidification. A thermal gradient is most easily controlled by controlling the rate of heat extraction from the casting, or the cooling rate. Alloys that have a wide spread between the liquidus and the solidus temperatures solidify with a mostly equiaxed grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... be provided, and the properties that it must possess in order to be used effectively in the intended application. Practically all of the commercially available alloys produced today are manufactured using melting and solidification techniques that have been refined over time to produce an acceptable level...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... continuous casting hot cracking ingot casting macrosegregation microporosity nonmetallic inclusions solidification shrinkage steel Modern steelmaking and refining processes are capable of producing large masses of highly homogeneous steel, both chemically and thermally. However, these liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... produced during carbonization is extracted and used for fuel elsewhere in the steelworks. Other by-products, such as tar, are also extracted for further refining and sale. After carbonization, the coke is pushed out of the ovens and cooled. Limestone, mainly calcium carbonate, is added as a flux for easier...