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exchange currents

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... for hydrogen evolution Fig. 32 Exchange-current densities for hydrogen evolution of lead, iron, copper, and platinum Fig. 7 Simplified potential-pH diagrams for iron at 25 °C (75 °F) showing (a) areas of immunity (no corrosion), passivity, and corrosion, and (b) reaction/corrosion products...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... reaction on iron showing the effect of pH. Curve for platinum shows influence of a metal with much higher exchange current density on the position of the hydrogen reduction curve. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 3.17 Theoretical and experimental polarization curves for reduction of oxygen (O 2 + 4H + + 4e...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... , a ⁢ exp ( ( 1 − α ) n F η a R T ) where the j o,i terms are the exchange current densities and represent the equally large cathode and anode currents at equilibrium (zero overpotential) at the electrodes. The exchange current densities are a measure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... = , may be determined on inert surfaces such as platinum. The extent to which these curves are applicable when the reactions occur on active metal surfaces must be questioned. The exchange current densities will almost always be lower on the active metals and will differ depending on whether the surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
..., measurement of the distribution of corrosion. The kinetics of single electrode reactions are discussed in Chapter 3 in which it is demonstrated that the kinetics are governed by the exchange current density and Tafel slope in the region of charge-transfer polarization. In addition, diffusion processes may...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... is the exchange current for the half-cell reaction. In Chapter 4 , simple corrosion processes (controlled only by charge transfer at the metal interface) are analyzed as coupled half-cell reactions between the oxidation reaction of a metal and the reduction reaction of the species causing corrosion (e.g., H...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... on the surface; and J 0 is the exchange current density. For the silver-gold system, these variables take the values: Ω = 1.685 × 10 –29 m 3 , q = 1.602 × 10 –19 C, n = 1, a = 2.880 × 10 –10 m, k B = 1.381 × 10 –23 J/K, N s = 1.395 × 10 19 /m 2 for the [111] surface, D s = 2 × 10 –13 m 2 /s...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... vessels, but in heat exchangers, it is necessary to extend the electrode around the surface to be protected. Multiple cathodes can be used in parallel to distribute the current and decrease circuit resistance. Reference Electrodes Reference electrodes must be used in anodic protection systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
...-handling concepts are described in Chapter 10 . Equipment Cooling Systems All induction heating systems require coolants (primarily water), because current-carrying components dissipate waste heat through I 2 R losses. Obviously, the greater the resistance of the current path and/or the current...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Line water to heat exchanger is too hot Monitor line water temperature. Heat exchanger is fouled Clean heat exchanger on PM program Temperature controls not working Repair. Have emergency bypass available Temperature control valve not working Repair. Have emergency bypass available...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... corrosion resistant metal decreases, and the surface becomes cathodic. The driving force for corrosion or galvanic current flow is the potential developed between the dissimilar metals. The extent of corrosion resulting from galvanic coupling is affected by the following factors: The potential...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Ion nitriding equipment can be categorized into two groups: cold-wall continuous direct current (dc) equipment and hot-wall pulsed dc equipment. This chapter focuses on these two categories along with other important considerations for ion (plasma) nitriding equipment...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
.... This causes small regions, called domains, in which all of the spins are aligned. This lowering of energy by the alignment of spins is called the exchange energy. There is a tendency of a material to form complete magnetic circuits, lowering the magnetostatic energy. The magnetostatic energy is less...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... physical size and improve efficiency. There are two types of direct current power supplies: rectification (ac/dc) and conversion of direct current (dc/dc). Internal circuits convert the dc current to high-frequency outputs. The two main types of circuits in the high-frequency output are parallel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... The location of the cathode is not a critical factor in simple geometries, such as storage vessels, but in heat exchangers, it is necessary to extend the electrode around the surface to be protected. Multiple cathodes can be used in parallel to distribute the current and to decrease the circuit resistance...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... there is considerable vaporization and where the smell of the quenchant becomes obnoxious. The quench cooling system must be sized correctly. A source of line water of the required flow and maximum inlet temperature is needed for cooling in the quench system heat exchanger. The quenchant must have the capacity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... Diamond R.M. , 1955 . Factors Influencing Ion-Exchange Equilibria in Concentrated Solutions: Behavior of Alkaline Earth and Alkali Ions , J. Am. Chem. Soc. , Vol 77 , p 2978 10.1021/ja01616a013 Everest D.A. , 1964 . The Chemistry of Beryllium , Elsevier , New York, NY , p 38...