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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This appendix provides information on the chemical composition, method of use, and applications of various etchants used in the metallography of carbon steels. chemical composition etchants etching Etchants are identified by an abbreviated form of their chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix is a list of etchants that are used to reveal dislocations in various metals, alloys, and compounds. dislocation etching etchants metals ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... layers of material in order to locate and identify the area of interest. Several of the top-down delayering techniques include wet chemical etching, dry reactive ion etching, top-down parallel lapping (including chemical-mechanical polishing), ion beam milling and laser delayering techniques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... grinding, and etching. It describes macrographic etchants and the features they reveal along with common etching problems and how to avoid them. It explains how to evaluate etching results and how they can be improved using remedial processes such as light grinding. It also discusses photographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... tools for first silicon debug. The etching capabilities of circuit edit FIB tools are then discussed, providing information on chemistry assisted etching in silicon oxides and low-k dielectrics. The chapter also discusses the requirements and procedures involved in edit operation: high aspect ratio...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... can be observed using metallographic techniques. It describes, and in many cases illustrates, the characteristic shapes, colors, and optical properties associated with aluminum alloy intermetallic phases and how they can be enhanced through selective etching. It provides an atlas of microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... lapping, chemical decapsulation, laser ablation, plasma reactive ion etching (RIE), CNC based milling and polishing, or a combination of these coupled with optical or electrical endpoint means. This article discusses the general characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each of these techniques...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter explains how to achieve accurate, sharp delineation of the microstructure of metals using appropriate etching and contrasting techniques. It covers a variety of methods, including chemical etching, heat tinting, gas contrasting, vapor deposition, magnetic etching, ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter explains how to prepare material samples for optical microscopy, the most common method for characterizing the microstructure of cast iron and steel. It provides information on sectioning, mounting, polishing, etching, and recording. It describes the nature of surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the important aspects that a metallographer should understand in order to effectively reveal a microstructure. It begins by exploring etching response and how it can be a tool for revealing various microstructural features. The next part of the chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter explains how to safely prepare beryllium alloy samples for metallographic analysis. It describes grinding, polishing, and etching procedures in detail. It also discusses the identification of major and minor constituents and the general appearance of beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... lapping, laser assisted chemical etch, plasma reactive ion etch, and CNC based milling and polishing. The article discusses the general characteristics, key principles, advantages, and disadvantages of these processes. It also contains case studies that illustrate the application of these processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and a metallographer working alone at a small iron foundry. The three basic areas in all metallography laboratories are discussed: the specimen preparation area, the polishing/etching area, and the observation/micrography area. Important safety issues in a metallographic laboratory are also considered. heat...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix provides a list of etch compositions and procedures that reveal the macrostructure of aluminum, beryllium, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc, and their respective alloys as well as iron, steel, noble metals, refractory metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix lists etch compositions and procedures that reveal strain patterns in aluminum and nickel-base superalloys. aluminum alloys macroetchants nickel-base superalloys strain patterns ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure of special bar quality (or engineering) steels and how it is influenced by carbon content, tempering temperature, and prior austenitic grain size. It explains how some of the changes are difficult to detect and require special etching...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., polishing, and etching. The discussion covers their basic principles, advantages, types, and applications, as well as the equipment setup. The chapter includes tables that list etchants used for microscopic examination. It also provides information on microscopic examination, microphotography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Fig. 2.1(a) Various microstructures formed in an AISI/SAE 1080 steel. A fully pearlitic microstructure. 4% picral etch. 500× Fig. 2.1(b) A fully bainitic microstructure. 4% picral etch. 1000× Fig. 2.1(c) A fully martensitic microstructure. Sodium metabisulfite etch. 1000...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... that are added for grain refinement and precipitation strengthening. The microstructure of a typical microalloyed steel is shown in Fig. 1.7 . Fig. 1.7 Micrograph of a microalloyed 450 MPa (65 ksi) yield strength linepipe steel showing a microstructure consisting of ferrite (light etching constituent...