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etchants

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... methods for revealing microstructure in the as-polished (unetched) specimen, then guidelines for selecting and using etchants when needed. The chapter discusses different types of etchants in terms of their ingredients, etching procedure, and major uses. The etchants discussed include basic etchants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... grinding, and etching. It describes macrographic etchants and the features they reveal along with common etching problems and how to avoid them. It explains how to evaluate etching results and how they can be improved using remedial processes such as light grinding. It also discusses photographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... roughness, the factors that contribute to it, and its effect on image quality. It discusses the use of fixturing and holding devices, includes photographic examples of polishing defects and drying marks, and provides an overview of micrographic etchants and the features they reveal. It also describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., and compositions and usage guidance for etchants, chemical polishing solutions, and coatings. chemical composition chemical polishing coatings etchants ferrous metallographer iron metallographic equipment steel ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., polishing, and etching. The discussion covers their basic principles, advantages, types, and applications, as well as the equipment setup. The chapter includes tables that list etchants used for microscopic examination. It also provides information on microscopic examination, microphotography...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This appendix provides information on the chemical composition, method of use, and applications of various etchants used in the metallography of carbon steels. chemical composition etchants etching Etchants are identified by an abbreviated form of their chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...) device sectioning techniques, non-encapsulated device techniques, utilization of the focused ion beam (FIB) making a cross-section and/or enhancing a physically polished one. Delineation methods for revealing structures are also discussed. These can be chemical etchants, chemo-mechanical polishing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix is a list of etchants that are used to reveal dislocations in various metals, alloys, and compounds. dislocation etching etchants metals ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... W. : “ Electrochemical Principles of Etching, ” Met. Aust. , vol. 4 , 1972 , pp. 279 – 282 . 6. Nelson J. A. : “ The Use of Wetting Agents in Metallographic Etchants, ” Prakt. Metallogr. , vol. 4 , 1967 , pp. 192 – 198 . 7. Dix E. H. : “ Acceleration of the Rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... revealed with different etchants. Fig. 13.3 (a) During treatment in the critical region of dual-phase and multiphase steels, carbon enriched austenite is formed (figure shows the equilibrium condition for a Fe-C alloy). (b) On cooling, austenite transforms partially to martensite. Depending on its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-colored areas that might have been partially transformed to martensite on cooling after tempering). It is possible to observe the martensite morphology change, too (see Chapter 9, “Conventional Heat Treatments: Usual Constituents and Their Formation,” in this book). Etchant: nital. Courtesy of L.T...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., among the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite (dark, small dots). Etchant: nital. (b) Another hypoeutectic white cast iron. Austenite dendrites were transformed into pearlite (dark). The transformed ledeburite, between the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... contains a brief outline of metallographic procedures, including a list of etchants. This chapter reviewed the crystal structures of titanium found in the three principal terminal alloy types and titanium aluminides. The study of titanium microstructures is carried out primarily using the light...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... areas (a) 7:1, (b) 10:1, (c) 27:1, and (d) 49:1. Some remaining image of the dendritic structure of the billet can still be observed. Etchant: hot etching with a water solution of picric acid with a surfactant agent (sodium tridecyl benzene sulfonate), proportions not informed (reactant is similar...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... steel as Fig. 12.11 (C = 0.06%, Mn = 0.55%) during the recrystallization process. Mostly equiaxial ferrite and aligned cementite. Heat-treated at 600 °C (1110 °F), hardness: 60 HRB. Etchant: nital 2%. Fig. 12.24 Same steel as Fig. 12.11 (C = 0.06%, Mn = 0.55%) after completing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... with approximately the same dimension in all directions or axis). Fig. 7.3 Extra low-carbon steel (Armco® iron). Ferrite grains and small nonmetallic inclusions. Etchant: aqua regia. Should this material be cold formed, the grain shape will change (see Chapter 12, “Mechanical Work of Steels: Cold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., superimposed on a CCT curve of a hypothetical steel. A = austenite, P = pearlite, F = ferrite. Fig. 10.15 AISI 1045 wire rod normalized. Pro-eutectoid ferrite and pearlite. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Aços Longos, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Fig. 10.16 AISI 1045 forging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... This precipitation can be clearly seen in SEM examination. Etchant: Kalling. Courtesy of A. Zeemann, Tecmetal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fig. 16.3 AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel quenched and tempered. (Double tempering at 730 and 690 °C, or 1345 and 1275 °F). Tempered martensite. Approximate hardness...