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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Quick reference guide to common attack etchants for carbon steels, low-alloy steels, and cast irons Table 8.1 Quick reference guide to common attack etchants for carbon steels, low-alloy steels, and cast irons Etchant To reveal or enhance General microstructure (unknown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., and compositions and usage guidance for etchants, chemical polishing solutions, and coatings. chemical composition chemical polishing coatings etchants ferrous metallographer iron metallographic equipment steel ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides information on the chemical composition, method of use, and applications of various etchants used in the metallography of carbon steels. 1. Fine L. , Met. Prog. , 1946 , 49 ( 1 ), 108 10.2307/3922518 . 1. Béchet S...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., surface grinding, and etching. It describes macrographic etchants and the features they reveal along with common etching problems and how to avoid them. It explains how to evaluate etching results and how they can be improved using remedial processes such as light grinding. It also discusses photographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of surface roughness, the factors that contribute to it, and its effect on image quality. It discusses the use of fixturing and holding devices, includes photographic examples of polishing defects and drying marks, and provides an overview of micrographic etchants and the features they reveal. It also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., grinding, polishing, and etching. The discussion covers their basic principles, advantages, types, and applications, as well as the equipment setup. The chapter includes tables that list etchants used for microscopic examination. It also provides information on microscopic examination, microphotography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This appendix is a list of etchants that are used to reveal dislocations in various metals, alloys, and compounds. dislocation etching etchants metals ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... encapsulated (potted) device sectioning techniques, non-encapsulated device techniques, utilization of the focused ion beam (FIB) making a cross-section and/or enhancing a physically polished one. Delineation methods for revealing structures are also discussed. These can be chemical etchants, chemo-mechanical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... First etchant Staining method Colors of minor phases obtained by previous investigators Solution Method Solution Method 1 Etch To stain sigma phase 8% oxalic acid; 92% water Electrolytic etch; 8–10 s; 6 V; room temperature 5 g KMnO 4 ; 5 g NaOH; 90 mL water Immerse 10–20 s; room...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of the microstructure of multiphase steels revealed with different etchants. Fig. 13.3 (a) During treatment in the critical region of dual-phase and multiphase steels, carbon enriched austenite is formed (figure shows the equilibrium condition for a Fe-C alloy). (b) On cooling, austenite transforms partially...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...-colored areas that might have been partially transformed to martensite on cooling after tempering). It is possible to observe the martensite morphology change, too (see Chapter 9, “Conventional Heat Treatments: Usual Constituents and Their Formation,” in this book). Etchant: nital. Courtesy of L.T...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... 0.65 Iron 15 600 1112 4.0 Chromium 15 675 1247 8.0 Cobalt 9 685 1265 7.0 Nickel 7 770 1418 8.0 Copper 7 790 1454 13.0 Silicon 0.9 860 1580 … Etchants for titanium and titanium alloys Table 7.2 Etchants for titanium and titanium alloys Alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Regions with graphite clusters (gray areas) and regions without graphite (white regions). Not etched. Fig. 17.64 Mottled gray iron. Dark areas are regions of gray cast irons (the contours are not as clear as in Fig. 17.63 ). The rest of the cross section is white cast iron. Etchant: picral...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... was measured as the ratio between the initial and final cross-sectional areas (a) 7:1, (b) 10:1, (c) 27:1, and (d) 49:1. Some remaining image of the dendritic structure of the billet can still be observed. Etchant: hot etching with a water solution of picric acid with a surfactant agent (sodium tridecyl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of cementite caused by cold working can also be observed. Fig. 12.23 Same steel as Fig. 12.11 (C = 0.06%, Mn = 0.55%) during the recrystallization process. Mostly equiaxial ferrite and aligned cementite. Heat-treated at 600 °C (1110 °F), hardness: 60 HRB. Etchant: nital 2%. Fig. 12.24 Same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... grains and small nonmetallic inclusions. Etchant: aqua regia. Should this material be cold formed, the grain shape will change (see Chapter 12, “Mechanical Work of Steels: Cold Working,” in this book) as a result of deformation. This type of material normally has very low hardness. When...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... This precipitation can be clearly seen in SEM examination. Etchant: Kalling. Courtesy of A. Zeemann, Tecmetal, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fig. 16.3 AISI 410 martensitic stainless steel quenched and tempered. (Double tempering at 730 and 690 °C, or 1345 and 1275 °F). Tempered martensite. Approximate hardness...