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equivalent carbon content

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...Effect of carbon concentration and martensite content on the as-quenched hardness of steel Table 1 Effect of carbon concentration and martensite content on the as-quenched hardness of steel Carbon, % Hardness, HRC, with extent of martensite content, M, % 99 95 90 80 50 0.10...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... (a) Important differences appear in boldfaced type. (b) Total carbon content (includes graphite plus combined carbon). Source: Ref 3 Comparative hardness values for quenched and tempered ductile irons Table 2 Comparative hardness values for quenched and tempered ductile irons Iron HB...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... manufacturing technologies. Also known as vermicular graphite cast iron, the CG irons are more widely produced in Europe than in the United States or elsewhere. Graphite Morphology Applications Carbon Equivalent Manganese and Phosphorus Contents Sulfur Content Melt Treatment Elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... families are indicated. Martensitic stainless steels may be considered in some aspects equivalent to engineering steels for quenching and tempering (carbon or alloy steels). The main difference is evidently the high chromium content. This leads to extremely high hardenability, a significant lowering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ratio (i.e., a greater silicon content for a constant carbon equivalent) results in more temper graphite clusters. This in turn translates into shorter annealing times. In black tempering, cementite is converted to graphite by the reaction: (Eq 24.3) Fe 3 C → 3 Fe + C Fig. 24.22...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... by preheating the weld to a temperature that must be increased with increasing: Diffusible hydrogen content Yield strength Hardness Carbon equivalent Thickness Restraint Susceptible microstructure Cracking can take place in either the weld metal or the HAZ, depending on which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., the form of niobium carbide is NbC. Theoretically, for all carbon to be converted to NbC, the amount of niobium required is 8 times the carbon content; this translates to a minimum niobium content of 0.24% for an “L”-grade stainless steel. In the case of most PM stainless steels, however...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... the influence of CE on the tensile strength of gray iron. Fig. 3 General influence of carbon equivalence (CE) on the tensile strength of gray iron. Although increasing the carbon content improves graphitization potential and therefore decreases chilling tendency, the strength is adversely affected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... 16.5 , as a guideline for selecting the best material with the minimum energy design. The chart shows that the energy content at the same strength level of, for example, 1000 MPa (145 ksi), is lower for carbon steels than for aluminum or magnesium alloys. Applying the selection guideline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... content, the finer the dendrites). Fig. 10.11 Simplified phase diagram of iron-carbon system of a carbon equivalent with silicon at 2% Si During the formation of the austenite dendrites, carbon is rejected into the remaining liquid. The carbon content of the liquid increases until it reaches...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
...-resistance characteristics (as well as mechanical properties). Cooling after sintering in hydrogen must be fast enough to avoid reoxidation of the surface ( section 5.2.3 in Chapter 5 ), which causes pitting. Carbon contents must be low enough (<0.02 to 0.03% for slowly cooled austenitic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of carbon content Fig. 11 Delay in carbide precipitation induced by nitrogen level. Source: Ref 17 Fig. 9 Depletion of chromium from the austenite near grain boundaries due to chromium carbide precipitation. Source: Ref 14 Fig. 10 Variation of carbide precipitation locus...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... for a stainless steel. For example, several highly alloyed iron-base alloys such as tool steels may contain more than 11% Cr, but their high carbon contents significantly reduce the amount of chromium in the steel matrix due to the precipitation of chromium carbides. The reduction in the chromium content...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... Most of the micrographs are of open-hearth steels cast as ingots but can be taken also to be representative of continuous-cast steels of equivalent carbon contents. Unless otherwise stated, all the micrographs are from longitudinal sections cut parallel to the rolling direction. High-Purity Irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... balance is the main determinant of ferrite level. Increasing the nickel, nitrogen, manganese, or carbon content decreases ferrite. Increasing chromium, silicon, or molybdenum content increases ferrite. Increasing the solidification rate will increase the ratio of austenite to ferrite in duplex...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... microstructure that can be produced in any carbon steel; therefore, heat treatments that produce martensite are referred to as hardening heat treatments . This chapter first shows that martensitic hardness is a function of steel carbon content and describes some of the mechanisms by which that hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the lowest aging temperatures. These alloys are not very susceptible to carbide sensitization and normally have very low carbon content. Thus, the guiding principle in annealing is simply to achieve phase balance and avoid cooling so slowly that intermetallic phases may form. The strengthening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to 60% austenite in a ferrite matrix. The modern alloys are produced with low carbon contents, usually less than 0.03%, and intergranular corrosion resulting from carbide precipitation generally has not been a practical problem. These alloys are usually high in chromium (22 to 27%) and molybdenum (2...