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equilibrium solidification

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and the unit cell Fig. 2.37 Equilibrium phase diagram of binary silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) alloys Fig. 2.36 Melting points of various metals. Fig. 2.39 Solidification structures on four length scales. Source: Ref. 2.7 Fig. 2.38 Equilibrium phase diagram of binary lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190vii
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... of machines AlSi6Cu4 AC45000 319 Different thin-wall cast parts, medium and high loaded AlSi9Cu AC46400 332 Pressure-cast parts (a) Source: Ref 3 . (b) Source: Ref 4 Equilibrium phase composition of alloys, identified according to the equilibrium solidification path ( Table 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpclas.t64560205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-353-9
... solidification. See text for details. (From same source as in Fig. 6-2 ) Fig. 6-6 Schematic illustration of the changes in chemical composition of a crystal during non-equilibrium solidification. See text for details. (From same source as in Fig. 6-2 ) Fig. 6-7 Schematic illustration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., consider the solidification of a simple solid-solution alloy as shown in Fig. 32 . The alloy has a composition of 50% metal A and 50% metal B. During slow (equilibrium) solidification, the first solid phase begins to form at temperature T 1 . The compositions of both the liquid and solid phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... formed from this liquid. This difference in solubility leads to the redistribution of solutes during the solidification process. Because industrial solidification is not slow enough to allow phase equilibrium to be restored at the end of the process, a portion of this solute redistribution remains...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... over which solidification takes place under equilibrium conditions can be found on the phase diagram. A simplified phase diagram for a binary eutectic alloy system is shown in Fig. 5 . The temperature at which solidification begins is called the liquidus temperature, and the temperature at which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... , the liquid phase starts to develop more order, the entropy term decreases, and the free energy for the liquid rises at a faster rate than that of the solid, as illustrated in Fig. 4.3 . At T m , the equilibrium melting point, the free energies of both phases are equal. However, solidification does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... , Met. Sci. , Vol 10 , 1976 , p 77 – 86 10.1179/msc.1976.10.3.77 Equilibrium Freezing of Peritectic Alloys Nonequilibrium Freezing of Peritectic Alloys Peritectic reactions or transformations are very common in the solidification of metals. Many interesting alloys undergo these types...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... of alloys that crystalize as temperatures are slowly cooled. Dashed green line shows crystal composition if the melt is cooled rapidly (nonequilibrium conditions). Solidification of liquid alloys of this type to achieve solid-state equilibrium involves nucleation and growth of alloy crystals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... energy for the liquid rises at a faster rate than that of the solid, as illustrated in Fig. 2.12 . At T m , the equilibrium melting point, the free energies of both phases are equal. However, solidification does not occur because the free-energy change is zero (Δ G = 0) and it must be negative. Below...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Schematic graph indicating the effect of the cooling rate on the solidification temperature of the stable and the metastable eutectics in cast irons. Although both temperatures decrease with an increasing cooling rate, at lower cooling rates the equilibrium eutectic is favored, and at rates above a certain...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... A in the lattice of element B is defined by point b . The methods of determining the equilibrium temperature ranges for solidification, fractions of phases, and compositions of phases are similar to those illustrated for the isomorphous systems ( Fig. 6.2 through 6.5 ). Because eutectic alloys have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... for FA solidification. Austenite (light, dendritic) and interdendritic ferrite. Etchant: Beraha II. Courtesy of M. Martins. (See also Ref 25 ). Fig. 16.32 Molar fraction of phases in equilibrium as a function of temperature for an ASTM A890/A890M, Grade 6A duplex stainless steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...Intermetallic phases in the aluminum corner of the Al-Cr equilibrium phase diagram Table 2.1 Intermetallic phases in the aluminum corner of the Al-Cr equilibrium phase diagram Designation Ref Designation in Fig. 2.3 Al 4 Cr, μ 4 – 11 μ Cr Al 11 Cr 2 , A l5 Cr, η η Cr...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... concepts, including solubility, critical temperature, dislocation defects, slip, and diffusion, and how they affect the microstructure, properties, and behaviors of steel. austenite cementite crystal imperfection crystal structure diffusion ferrite iron-carbon equilibrium diagram...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... 40 60–80 Platelike Nodular 1600 … 300–800 Polyhedral Source: Ref 45 , 50 Fig. 1.31 Mechanism of interactions between growth steps: arising and connecting of steps on facet of silicon equilibrium octahedron. (a) Low modifier concentration. (b) High modifier concentration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... Silicon influences the eutectic and eutectoid reactions, the solidification range, and the casting characteristics. 4.5.1 Effect of Silicon on the Iron-Iron Carbide Diagram Figure 4.4 is an overlay of the iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram without consideration of the effect of silicon (shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... ) Because this equilibrium composition of liquidus line expresses the relation between the temperature and the composition produced by an eutectic reaction (L → A + B) at solidification, it is called a monovariant eutectic line (see Section 4.1.3 Phase Rule “Gibbs” a monovariant system). Figure 4.5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
..., the surface energy of liquid Cu is σ = 1.3 J/m 2 . The molar volume is V L = 7.9 × 10 –6 m 3 /mol. The boiling point is T b = 2855 K without any atomization. The enthalpy of boiling is Δ H b = 306 kJ/mol. [Answer] First, considering the boiling point at P = normal pressure, the equilibrium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... principles that need to be understood by the metallographer. The discussion focuses on the variations in microstructures that are generated as a result of the phase transformations that occur during both heat treatment (as in steels) and solidification (as in cast irons). The chapter describes how...