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environmentally enhanced crack growth

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... degradation and growth of the oxidation layer. Severe surface oxidation degradation results in the formation of fiber-matrix disbonds coalescing into transverse surface cracks ( Fig. 15.21 ). These cracks not only reduce strength but also create enhanced pathways for oxygen to penetrate deeper into the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... the fact that molybdate ions are known to impede pit growth as a separate effect from their action within the alloy matrix ( Ref 4 ). Copper has a similarly complicated effect, with copper ions gettering sulfide ions and redepositing as metallic copper ( Ref 5 ). Nickel also lowers the critical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... softening of the steel. Hydrogen also causes growth of microvoids in undeformed specimens and the initiation of microcracks in specimens deformed to the critical strain (Ref 29) . During cooling and shrinkage of a weld, these defect sites become localized regions of triaxial tensile stress concentration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... follows. The process of fracture, in general terms, can be described in terms of the mechanisms of crack initiation and/or crack extension (growth). Different mechanisms may occur for crack initiation and the subsequent process of crack growth. For example, crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... this one break at this specific time ?” This is a different question, and to answer it, fracture mechanics type of explanations and theories must be explored. In such a case, one assumes that every structure has some small discontinuity and a related crack growth rate, which is a function of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... alloys, discusses the formation of oxide scale in the presence of mixed gases, and explains how alloy composition contributes to oxide growth. The chapter discusses the underlying chemistry of hot corrosion, how to identify its effects, and how it progresses under various conditions. It also discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., there are multiple ways in which stresses can develop that may crack and blister the scale, rendering it nonprotective. The different causes of stress generation are described in Chapter 5 in Ref 1 . So-called growth stresses arise due to changes caused by the oxidation process itself. These include...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... low stress amplitudes. Shear-type crack growth can occur in ductile retained austenite in the near-surface region of the case for gas-carburized steels. Kikuchi et al. have shown that shot peening is very effective in improving the fatigue properties of carburized steels with these surface structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... quenching, the β-phase present at the solution-treating temperature may be retained or may be partly, or fully, transformed during cooling by either martensitic transformation or nucleation and growth. The specific response depends on alloy composition, solution treating temperature (β-phase composition at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... hardening by solution and/or growth of the carbide phases than are the iron-nickel- and nickel-base precipitation-hardened alloys. Changes in cobalt-base superalloy structure can occur, nevertheless, and additional carbide precipitation can cause high hardening rates, while grain growth can lead to changes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... cracks, density variations, and microlaminations. powder characteristics powder metallurgy POWDER METALLURGY (P/M) is the process of blending fine powdered materials, pressing (compacting) them into a desired shape or form, and then heating the compressed material in a controlled atmosphere...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... of fracture. Generally, classification is based on the crack growth mechanism (see also the chapter “ General Aspects of Failure Analysis ” in this book). In this short overview of the possible mechanisms of failure for steels, the following were discussed: Techniques for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... those of other aluminides. Despite a lack of fracture resistance (low ductility, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth rate), the titanium aluminides Ti 3 Al (α-2) and TiAl (γ) have great potential for enhanced performance. Table 6 compares properties of these aluminides with those of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... high cycle—LCF or HCF), thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF), tensile overload modified by environmental interactions, crack growth (from a new crack or an existing imperfection), or combinations thereof. By examination of fracture surfaces and comparison of component operating conditions with available...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... an even lower oxygen content (0.2 percent) and a larger grain size (21 to 200 nm) for enhanced creep resistance. Another SiC-type fiber with titanium carbide (TiC) in its structure is Tyranno, produced by Ube Industries. It contains two weight percent titanium to help inhibit grain growth at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... aluminides alongside those of other aluminides are shown in Table 6.2 , and the creep behavior of titanium aluminides is compared with that of conventional titanium alloys in Fig. 6.3 . Despite a lack of fracture resistance (low ductility, fracture toughness, and fatigue crack growth rate), the titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... a constant V f of γ′. After the age-hardening peak is reached, strength decreases with continuing particle growth, because dislocations no longer cut γ′ particles but bypass them. This effect can be demonstrated for tensile or hardness behavior in low- V f γ′ superalloys (A-286, Incoloy 901...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... materials that have high strengths at room temperature and/or retain high strength at elevated temperatures, resist deformation (slow crack growth or creep), are damage tolerant, and resist corrosion and oxidation. Ceramics appropriate to these applications offer a significant weight savings over currently...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... tempered by a localized decrease in the fracture toughness at the microscale. Increases in thermal conductivity, combined with toughening mechanisms that resist the coalescence of thermal shock-induced cracks into critical flaws, result in enhanced thermal shock resistance relative to the monolithic...