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environmental hazards

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter describes the conditions under which environmental degradation is likely to occur in polymer matrix composites and the potential damage it can cause. It discusses the problems associated with moisture absorption and exposure to solvents, fuels, ultraviolet radiation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article discusses the molecular mechanism, environmental criteria, and material optimization of environmental stress crazing (ESC) in glassy thermoplastics, polyethylenes, and nylons. In addition, it provides information on various tests used to determine relative susceptibility...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract This chapter covers regulatory requirements, safe handling practices, hazard analysis and control, dismantling and decommissioning, and waste disposal. It also includes references for additional information on government regulations. beryllium hygienic practices...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., environmental factors, and cracking characteristics. It includes a model that accounts for the primary factors involved in intergranular SCC, namely, tensile stresses above the yield stress of the base material, a sensitized microstructure, and reactor cooling water. The chapter also provides proven remedies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... providing information on the processes involved in interfacial and cohesive wear. This is followed by sections describing the wear process and applications of elastomers, thermosets, glassy thermoplastics, and semicrystalline thermoplastics. The effects of environmental and lubricant on the wear failures of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... desired objectives of quenching, annealing, and aging along with the associated risks of surface damage caused by oxidation, carbon pickup, alloy depletion, intergranular attack, and environmental contaminants. It also discusses heat treatment atmospheres, furnace and fixturing requirements, and practical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... class. It describes the issues related to corrosion of carbon steel weldments and remedial measures that have proven successful in specific cases. The major forms of environmentally assisted cracking affecting weldment corrosion are covered. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the effects of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... influence of material and environmental variables on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) and the mechanisms proposed for SCC in stainless steel, comparing the mechanism of SCC with hydrogen embrittlement. In addition, it provides information on biocorrosion and microbiologically induced corrosion in ambient...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... punch surface and become hard particles due to the presence of oxygen, which leads to galling ( Ref 7.9 ). Fine blanking experiments were conducted ( Ref 7.28 ) with 16MnCr5 steel (AISI 5115) in order to compare the performance of chlorinated (widely used and environmentally hazardous) and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Hazard Associated with Fabricating Beryllium-Copper Alloys ,” UCRL-52258, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory , Livermore, CA 10.2172/7097955 Stange A.W. , Furman J.F. , and Hilmas D.E. , 2004 . The Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test: Relevant Issues in Beryllium Health...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... Service failures may result in: Fatalities Injuries to personnel Damage to property Shutdown of an entire plant Loss of production Ecological problems such as release of hazardous materials Expensive and prolonged litigations affecting the credibility of the manufacturers and the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... intervals. This approach to inspection has a number of drawbacks, particularly in terms of the safety and environmental hazards posed by opening and entering vessels, and the cost of lost production during shutdown. As a result, inspections by noninvasive methods that require access to the vessel exterior...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... in Chapter 2, “Common Causes of Failures.” The process used for making caprolactam before the disaster occurred was oxidation of cyclohexane, which is a highly inflammable and very hazardous material to handle. When copious amounts of hot cyclohexane escaped to the atmosphere due to the bursting of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170596
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... would be high enough to ensure ease of fabrication. Purity of the material would be maintainable at a level that ensures consistent performance. Neither the material nor any process step necessary to fabricate it would present an environmental hazard. Finally, the material would be available at low cost...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... electroplating, chromate conversion coatings, and organic coatings containing high amounts of volatile organic compounds (solvents). The chemicals used for these processes may pose serious health and environmental hazards. For information about specific regulatory requirements, permitting conditions, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... collect the particles flushed during the process. The cost of discarding this residue is high, because it is environmentally hazardous. In the United States, the large majority of the electrodes are made from graphite. Graphite is used because it is a soft material that can easily be polished with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... (135,000 mi) of hazardous liquid transmission pipelines, 34,000 km (21,000 mi) of crude oil gathering pipelines, 483,000 km (300,000 mi) of natural gas transmission pipelines, and 45,000 km (28,000 mi) of natural gas gathering pipelines in 2000 ( Ref 1 – 3 ). There were approximately 60 major natural gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... toxic and poses certain environmental hazards, which is why its use in commercial products such as paint and gasoline have been limited or discontinued. The low melting point of lead (327 °C, or 621 °F) makes it one of the simplest metals to cast at approximately 370 °C (700 °F). It is used in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Coatings , Chapman & Hall , 1996 10.1007/978-94-009-1501-5 • Surface Engineering , Vol 5 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1994 • Swaraj P. , Surface Coatings , John Wiley & Sons , 1985 Inhibitors • Boffardi B.P. , Control of Environmental Variables...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... required hardness and case depth Minimizing the potential for distortion and quench cracks The capability of keeping the quenchant in the desired operating temperature range Environmental requirements such as restrictions on rust inhibitors or biocides in the quenchant, venting requirements...