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energy-source intensity

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... with the steps involved in determining strain energy release rates, stress intensity factors, J-integrals, R-curves, and crack tip opening displacement parameters. It also covers fracture toughness testing methods and the effect of measurement variables. crack tip opening displacement elastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fracture and explains how they reshaped design philosophies, procedures, and tools. It also discusses the influence of material and manufacturing defects, operating conditions, stress concentration and intensity, temperature and pressure, and cyclic loading, all of which play a role in the onset of fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... for weldments. The chapter concludes with a section on how to interpret time to failure, threshold stress, percent survival, stress intensity, and propagation rate data, and assess the precision of the associated tests. precracked specimens slow-strain-rate testing smooth specimens stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., microstructure, heat treatment, cold working, and stress intensity. It also provides information on stress-corrosion testing, mitigation techniques, and basic cracking mechanisms. cold working copper alloys stress-corrosion cracking stress-corrosion test THE PHENOMENON of stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... are the most common and simplest techniques for obtaining stress-intensity factors. The methods are quite simple, and are discussed below. A complex structural configuration may encompass complicated geometry and/or loading by more than one source of input loads. It can be treated as if it were a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...-intensity on crack propagation rates, and describes several mechanical fracture models, including corrosion tunnel, film-induced cleavage, and tarnish rupture models. crack initiation crack propagation stress-corrosion cracking STRESS-CORROSION CRACKING (SCC) is a term used to describe service...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... implies a link between depletion of limited resource, energy consumption, and protection of the environment. Materials are being consumed at incredible rates because of the increase in population and the growth of living standards. The supply of most materials comes from nonrenewable sources, which means...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... intensities of the various characteristic energies. Source: Ref 1 Qualitative analysis (determination of which elements are present) is done by comparing the energies of the x-rays emitted from the sample with the known characteristic x-ray spectra of each element ( Fig. 3 ). Quantitative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes x-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet and visible light, and infrared radiation, showing their relationship with wave length and photon energy. Source: Ref 1 X-rays and γ-rays are physically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... its characteristic wavelength. Photomultiplier tubes act as detectors and simultaneously measure the light intensity at wavelengths characteristic of each element. Fig. 5.16 Schematic of a spark emission spectrometer. Source: Ref 5.11 The positions (in terms of the wavelength) and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...-intensity current being produced within the area of the intense magnetic fields. Fig. 2.1 Induction coils with electromagnetic fields. OD: outside diameter; ID: inside diameter. Source: Ref 1 Induction heat treating involves heating a workpiece from room temperature to a higher temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... workpiece 0.75 0.50 0.80 0.60 Pancake 0.35 0.25 0.50 0.30 Hairpin 0.45 0.30 0.60 0.40 One turn around workpiece 0.60 0.40 0.70 0.50 Channel 0.65 0.45 0.70 0.50 Internal 0.40 0.20 0.50 0.25 Source: Ref 4 Coils in the lower frequencies of 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... more than the area of the sample where the electron beam impinged, and may originate from a significantly larger volume than would be preferred. All electron microscopes (transmission and scanning) have in common some basic features: a source, which is able to generate an electron beam with energy and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... detector; therefore, they can also operate in the SEM mode. Fig. 4 The energy distribution of emitted electrons at (a) low beam energy (approximately 1 keV) and (b) a higher beam energy (approximately 5 keV) Secondary electrons generally display a peak intensity at approximately only 5 eV...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Fig. 9.15 Two sequences for the formation of a two-phase mixture by diffusion processes. (a) Classical nucleation and growth. (b) Spinodal decomposition. Source: Ref 9.9 as published in Ref 9.10 The underlying theory of spinodal decomposition involves the concept of the gradient energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... energy, E f . At temperatures above absolute zero, some of the electrons are thermally excited to higher energy levels that correspond to E max , as indicated in the dashed curve. Fig. 17.3 Density-of-states parabola. Source: Ref 2 Because only two electrons can occupy each level, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... resulting from the collision between the vapor atoms and the high-energy electrons of the primary beam. An additional, more powerful source of ions is from the collision of the atoms with the secondary electrons that are generated when the primary electrons strike the target. Depending on the operational...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... crack-tip stress intensity in moist and dry hydrogen gas. Source: Ref 29 Crack growth in aluminum in hydrogen is also a function of hydrogen permeability, as in the iron-and nickel-base alloys. Hydrogen permeation and the crack growth rate are a function of potential, increasing with more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of a plastic component during actual use. References 1. Hirt R.C. and Searle N.D. , Energy Characteristics of Outdoor and Indoor Exposure Sources and Their Relation to the Weatherability of Plastics , Applied Polymer Symposia , No. 4 , 1967 , p 61 – 83 2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... energy content and intensity of the light absorbed, the chemical nature of the chromophore excited, and its environment. The energy content of sunlight at ground level, as well as its intensity as a function of wavelength, is modified considerably by the presence of ozone in the earth’s atmosphere...