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energy consumption

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Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 16.3 Trend for energy consumption per ton of steel. Source: AUTO STEEL, Steel Market Development Institute More
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Published: 01 December 2008
Fig. 9.15 (a) The diffusion coefficient of Fe-C system. (b) The mechanism of pearlite transformation of Fe-C system and the breakdown of energy consumption More
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Published: 01 August 2012
Fig. 10.19 Pneumatic slide counterbalancing. (a) Components. Source: Ref 10.7 . (b) Effect of pressure setting on energy consumption for a given 1000 ton press. Source: Ref 10.23 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... implies a link between depletion of limited resource, energy consumption, and protection of the environment. Materials are being consumed at incredible rates because of the increase in population and the growth of living standards. The supply of most materials comes from nonrenewable sources, which means...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... technology helps to improve and sustain our way of life by reducing energy consumption, providing environmental benefits, supporting human comfort, and reducing material waste. What is Thermal Spray? Thermal spray is an established industrial method for the surfacing and resurfacing of engineered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... (e.g., Y, Yd, He), and larger and more complex parts. Energy Conversion and Harvesting Both population growth and economic development are accompanied by an ever-increasing consumption of energy. However, the use of fossil fuels to meet this increasing demand has resulted in the rapid increase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
..., transmissions, aerodynamics, tire rolling resistance, and vehicle weight. As Fig. 1.8 shows, vehicle weight reduction is the most effective means for improving fuel economy and reducing energy consumption. Reducing vehicle weight lowers the inertial forces that the engine has to overcome to decelerate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... variables that cannot be understood. However, if it is rearranged, the breakdown of energy consumption during eutectic solidification can be understood: (Eq 9.32) Δ G (   L → α + β ) Total driving force = 2 σ α / β V λ Interface energy + λ k...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
..., reducing energy consumption in manufacturing and service, reducing levels of environmental pollution and the costs of environmental control, and lowering material cost through recycling. When factored into cost comparisons with competing materials, the advantage of aluminum in life-cycle analysis can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... center (BDC) position is essentially defined by the crank and pitman arm geometry. Because of their high stroking rate and low energy consumption, mechanical presses are the most common presses used in batch/mass production of sheet metal parts. The rated capacity (tonnage) of a mechanical press...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... 40% of electricity produced worldwide is still from coal-based thermal power plants. The top three coal-consuming countries are China, the United States, and India, together accounting for more than 70% of the total coal consumption in the world. According to the International Energy Outlook 2016...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). The shorter meltdown times in gas-fired furnaces are accompanied by lower fuel costs but higher melt loss and a hotter operator environment. The melting time, melt loss, and energy consumption are critical factors which influence the selection of the right kind of furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... energy for melting, reducing coke consumption and combustion air. The low gas velocities through the cupola shaft permit the charging of fine aggregates of cast iron turnings and borings. Trials with 70% of charge comprising cast iron borings were successful. Only a small amount of air, typically...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... remelting. Remelting aluminum requires only 5% of the energy that is required to produce virgin aluminum from bauxite, and emits only 5% of the CO 2 . The energy saving is 14 kwh/kg. In the United States, nearly half of all aluminum beverage cans are recycled; the rest go into landfills. The recycle rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of air gap between coil and bar, and induction power-supply frequency: (a) 60 Hz and 1 kHz. From G. F. Bobert, “Innovative Induction Systems for the Steel Industry,” Proc. Energy Seminar/Workshop on New Concepts in Energy Conservation and Productivity Improvement for Industrial Heat Processing Equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... is started with an open arc; as soon as a molten bath is formed by the heat of the arc, the electrodes are immersed into the molten beryl, and the heating is continued by passing the current directly through the bath. Energy consumption for fusion at 1600 to 1625 °C amounts to 1045 kWh per metric ton...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., silicon’s relative transparency to infrared wavelengths, and their applicability to backside FA. Active laser-based approaches take advantage of direct IC interactions with focused, localized light. With illumination using shorter wavelengths/higher energies than the silicon indirect bandgap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... and the electric energy consumption (kilowatt-hour per mile) of EVs and PHEVs linearly with the extent of mass reduction. Lightweighting to reduce the sprung mass is achieved by replacing low-carbon rolled steel body structures with high-strength steel; eliminating or downsizing the engine and its accessories...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... energy is available to bring an adjacent unit mass to the combustion stage. Energy may be supplied by the heat of combustion or external sources, and energy may be depleted by heat loss to surroundings. The characteristics of the burning process vary with time. Figure 1 shows an example...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., plastics, and other metallic materials call for enhancement of the surface, due to the constant quest for decreasing material and energy consumption as well as increasing properties. Surface layers are, in the majority of cases, superficially hardened layers formed by thermal and thermochemical treatment...