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empirical method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... available data from previous forging of similar parts. These estimations are very conservative and lead to significant errors. Empirical methods: Use simple empirical formulas and graphs or monographs to estimate the load for simple forging operations. These methods are quick but limited in their...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... production between 1900 and 1920 but became a smaller percentage of total production as the open hearth process became the major method of making steel. In the 1920s, Bessemer steel production increased to eight million tons per year while open hearth increased to 40 million tons per year” ( Ref 2 ). Thus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... ). If the degree of primary creep is significant, a whole new set of analytical solutions are required ( Ref 6.18 , 6.19 ). The general concept and empirical-based methods for determining the size of an EAZ have been presented in Chapter 5 , where the discussion centered on environment-sensitive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... Abstract Hot stamping is a forming process for ultrahigh-strength steels (UHSS) that maximizes formability while minimizing springback. This chapter covers several aspects of hot stamping, including the methods used, the effect of process variables, and the role of finite-element analysis in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract Pitting is the most common corrosion attack on aluminum alloy products. This chapter explains why pitting occurs and how it appears in different types of aluminum. It discusses pitting rates, pitting potentials, and pitting resistance as well as testing and prevention methods. It also...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fatigue data. It compares the Gerber, Goodman, and Soderberg methods for predicting the effect of mean stress from bending data, describes the statistical nature of fatigue measurements, and explains how plastic strain causes cyclic hardening and softening. It discusses the work of Wohler, Basquin, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the particular corrosion problems encountered and the methods of control used in petroleum production and the storage and transportation of oil and gas up to the refinery. It begins by describing those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Kelly D. , Composite Materials for Aircraft Structures , 2nd ed. , American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. , 2004 3. Hart-Smith L.J. , “ Bolted Joint Analysis for Fibrous Composite Structures—Current Empirical Methods and Future Scientific Prospects ,” ASTM STP 1455...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... key process parameters including the draw ratio, material properties, geometry, interface conditions, equipment operating speed, and tooling. It then walks through the steps involved in predicting stress, strain, and punch force using the slab method and finite element analysis and presents the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... pathways, and relevant test and measurement procedures. It describes life assessment methods based on hardness, wall thickness, scale formation, microstructure, and creep. It also includes a case study on the determination of the residual life of a secondary superheater tube. boiler tubes remaining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... either wet analytical methods or the (α, n) procedure than by means of emission spectrometry. Advantages of the latter are its specificity, high sensitivity, and, especially, its ability to cope rapidly with large numbers of samples. The method is empirical, and a range of standard mixtures for each type...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... constraint—a crack tip characteristic that cannot be measured directly. The CTOD approach offers a significant improvement over linear elastic methods in the plastic range. An empirical correlation, known as a design curve, relates CTOD, crack size, and applied strain for a wide range of structural and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... of effort has been expended in developing empirical prediction methods. One of the most widely used is the Larson-Miller parameter, P : (Eq 5) P = T ( ln t + C ) = Q R where T is the absolute temperature, t is the time to rupture in hours, Q is the activation energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This chapter discusses various types of material fracture toughness and the methods by which they are determined. It begins with a review of the basic principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, covering the Griffith-Irwin theory of fracture, the concept of strain energy release...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of a computational method, called CALPHAD, used for the study of phase equilibria in multicomponent systems. It describes the thermodynamic models and calculation techniques employed in the software and explains how it applies to complex alloys used in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract This chapter provides a brief but practical overview of the case carburizing process. It discusses the benefits and challenges of the process and compares and contrasts it with other hardening methods. It explains how design allowables and safety factors compensate for unknowns and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... martensite and bainite. It also discusses the formation of austenite, the control and measurement of austenitic grain size, the characteristics of ferritic microstructures, and the methods used to classify ferrite morphology. austenite austenite decomposition austenitic grain size bainite carbon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... hardening and softening, both of which lead to premature failure. It then discusses the stages of fatigue fracture, using detailed images to show how cracks initiate and grow and how they leave telltale marks on fracture surfaces. It goes on to describe fatigue life assessment methods and demonstrate their...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... the corroded metal. It discusses five primary methods of corrosion control, namely, material selection, coatings, inhibitors, cathodic protection, and design. Examples of the opportunities in corrosion control and the means to implement a program to capitalize on those opportunities are presented in a...