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elevated temperatures

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Abstract Elevated-temperature failures are the most complex type of failure because all of the modes of failures can occur at elevated temperatures (with the obvious exception of low-temperature brittle fracture). Elevated-temperature problems are real concerns in industrial applications. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... treatment), and excellent elevated-temperature strengths are available in finished products. At ordinary temperatures, the strengths of most metals are measured in terms of short-time properties such as yield strength or ultimate strength. However, when temperatures rise, particularly to temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter compares and contrasts the high-temperature behaviors of metals and composites. It describes the use of creep curves and stress-rupture testing along with the underlying mechanisms in creep deformation and elevated-temperature fracture. It also discusses creep-life...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... information on the stress-rupture test used to measure the time it takes for a metal to fail at a given stress at elevated temperature. The major classes of creep mechanism, namely Nabarro-Herring creep and Coble creep, are then covered. The chapter also provides information on three primary modes of elevated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. These metals are considered refractory because of their high melting points, high-temperature mechanical stability, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. This article discusses the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Carbon and low-alloy steels in high-temperature service are vulnerable to the effects of hydrogen attack, which include severe loss in tensile and rupture strengths as well as ductility. As the chapter explains, when steel is in contact with hydrogen molecules at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... Abstract This chapter describes a number of corrosion testing methods for sintered stainless steels, including immersion, salt spray, and electrochemical tests, ferric chloride and ferroxyl tests, and elevated-temperature oxidation resistance tests. It also provides corrosion resistance and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-temperature oxidation sulfidation carburization hydrogen effects hot corrosion corrosion protection corrosion resistance WHEN METAL IS EXPOSED to an oxidizing gas at elevated temperature, corrosion can occur by direct reaction with the gas, without the need for the presence of a liquid electrolyte...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
..., the steel is then heated to a temperature just below the A 1 temperature for approximately 1 h, and on cooling, a microstructure of fine spheres of cementite in a ferrite matrix emerges. The room-temperature martensite is not a stable phase (it does not appear on the phase diagram), and at elevated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of lime-stabilized zirconia or yttria-stabilized material for temperatures up to 1600 °C (2900 °F). The typical oxygen probe construction is shown in Fig. 4 . When such a probe is subjected to elevated temperatures, the nonporous sheath material acts as a solid electrolyte that permits the passage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... produced a mixture of beryllium oxide, beryllium carbide, and elementary carbon [ Scott 1960 ]. The primary reaction is given by: Be + CO = BeO + C In carbon dioxide with a 7.5 vol% carbon monoxide mixture, beryllium at elevated temperature (700 °C, or 1290 °F) will follow the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... safety it is often not as serious (or as sudden) as fracture, because wear is usually anticipated. Failures can also be induced by service temperatures. Examples include creep deformation and rupture at elevated temperature, or the brittle fracture of body-centered cubic (bcc) metals at low temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... specific applications, such as automotive spark plugs. The low-carbon grade 201 (N02201) is used at elevated temperatures, at or above 315 °C (600 °F), where graphitization can occur in the higher-carbon material. As is the case with nickel-copper and other nickel alloys, commercially pure nickel can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... temperature of a material indicates its ability to retain a certain property, whether electrical or physical, when exposed to elevated temperatures for an extended period of time. Service temperature is therefore an important property when considering the end-use applications of a plastic. The service...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... a deformation temperature range of 0 to 300 deg C and magnesium and aluminum extruded products with a working temperature range of 300 to 600 deg C. The second part focuses on copper alloy extruded products, extruded titanium alloy products, and extruded products in iron alloys with a working...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract After shaping and first-stage binder removal, the component (with remaining backbone binder) is heated to the sintering temperature. Further heating induces densification, evident as dimensional shrinkage, pore rounding, and improved strength. This chapter begins with a discussion on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... forming operation at elevated temperatures. In this chapter, material testing methods, data, and the warm forming processes for forming aluminum and magnesium sheet are discussed. Among all metals, magnesium stands out with its lower density (1.7 g/cm 3 ) compared to aluminum (2.7 g/cm 3 ) and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... deformation of a material at elevated temperature under mechanical stresses of constant magnitude. A failure from such a condition is referred to as a creep or stress rupture failure. Stress rupture failures also cover failure due to short-term or long-term overheating ( Ref 6.1 ). References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... component may be susceptible to surface attack and failure has occurred. Similarly, if a part creeps during operation so that the part begins to impinge on another part, failure has occurred. In the general sense, elevated-temperature failure modes may be classified as creep rupture, fatigue (low or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... affect impact and tensile strength, shrinkage, thermal expansion, and thermal conductivity. It examines the relationship between tensile modulus and temperature, provides thermal property data for selected plastics, and discusses the effect of chemical exposure, operating temperature, and residual stress...