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elemental mapping

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... scanning electron microscope chamber including the lithium-drifted EDS detector, silicon drift detector (SDD), and wavelength dispersive X-ray detector. The article then provides information on qualitative and quantitative X-ray analysis programs followed by a discussion on EDS elemental mapping. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Magnetic field imaging (MFI), generally understood as mapping the magnetic field of a region or object of interest using magnetic sensors, has been used for fault isolation (FI) in microelectronic circuit failure analysis for almost two decades. Developments in 3D magnetic field...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... identifying them. The chapter also provides information on the testing of MEMS devices. It covers the two common challenges in sample preparation for MEMS: decapping, or opening up the package, without disturbing the MEMS elements; and removing MEMS elements for analysis. Finally, the chapter discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... techniques are E-beam Logic State Imaging, Electron-beam Signal Image Mapping, and E-beam Device Perturbation. Backside nano-probing techniques discussed include: Electron Beam Absorbed Current, Electron Beam Induced Resistance Change, four terminal resistance measurements, resistive gate defect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... theory, providing information on electro-optical effects and free-carrier effects. It then focuses on commercially available continuous wave LVP systems. Alternative optoelectronic imaging and probing technologies for fault isolation, namely frequency mapping and laser voltage tracing, are also discussed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... microscopy (STEM), energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM), and EELS and EDS based elemental mapping have to be employed for complete characterization of the defect and identification of root cause. However, conventional two-dimensional (2D) TEM projection images of 3D objects are not adequate due to “projection effect...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the various factors pertinent to gravity permanent mold (GPM) castings, along with their advantages, limitations, and significance. The discussion covers the geometric factors, process and manufacturing elements, gating practices, and feeding principles of and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... discusses the effect of grain size and alloying elements and explains how Jominy end quench testing is used to evaluate the hardenability of steel. continuous transformation diagram hardenability hardness isothermal transformation diagram Jominy test steel THE PROFESSIONAL materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... removal of surface layers, thereby permitting depth profiling of elemental compositions within about 1 μm of the surface. These capabilities make the SAM well suited for the following types of applications: Identification and mapping of light elements (atomic numbers 3 to ~9) that are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... COMPARED TO ALLOY STEELS, stainless steels are chemically complex. The large number of alloying elements makes possible a larger range of possible phases or basic crystal structures. The large amount of the alloying elements makes the deviation from the behavior of pure iron greater; consequently, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... mapping of the logical address bus to the tester address resources is first made. For example, A[9:0] may map to X[6:0]Y[2:0] where X represents the row decoder bits and Y represents the column decoder bits. Then, the address scramble Boolean equations can be written to transform X and Y into physical row...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... given alloy, one would “step in” temperature. Alternatively, one can vary the composition of one of the components/elements and calculate how the phase amounts change for a fixed temperature or predict how the solidus or liquidus would change with varying alloy composition. Map : Two axis variables...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... compressibility. As a process, all iron powders are generally annealed in a reducing atmosphere. Special high-compressibility powders are produced by double-annealing operations. Alloying elements are typically mixed with the iron powder by blending in a double-cone blender. Elemental addition of alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... more detail in Chapter 16, “Cast Irons.” In addition to carbon, all modern steels contain the element manganese (Mn) and low levels of the impurity atoms of sulfur (S) and phosphorus (P). Hence, steels can be thought of as alloys of three or more elements, given as Fe + C + X , where Fe and C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Automated ultrasonic scanning units Fig. 12.5 Modern ultrasonic scanning squirter unit. Source: The Boeing Company The output from these automated units is displayed as a C-scan, which is a planar map of the part, where light (white) areas indicate less sound attenuation and are of higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 49.3 0.58 63.8 59.5 57.0 53.2 50.0 0.60 64.3 60.0 57.5 53.8 50.7 Source: Ref 1 , 2 Unlike the effect of carbon on the hardness of martensite, other alloying elements do not increase the hardness of as-quenched steel ( Fig. 2 , Ref 4 ). The hardness of martensite depends...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... product by doing finger print of the trace elements in this small particle. Based on our failure Pareto, 30-40% of the field return failures in semiconductor products are caused by a process or material aberration. To solve the problem and prevent re-occurrence, our manufacturing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... addition, the nitrogen solid solution strengthens the austenite and retards the formation of intermetallic phases, which is not bad for an element that costs nothing. ThermoCalc, developed by the Swedish Royal Academy, has been an especially valuable tool in helping us understand and design better...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110499
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... wordline address X and the bitline address Y. This fail information is can be visualized in bitmaps, which that a map of failing bits is shown. The coordinates of the maps are the X and Y addresses of the cells. Four sample bitmaps are shown in Fig. 5 . Figure 5 Bitmap examples: Single cell (a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... chapter, is the interaction of one or more metal atoms/ions with one or more oxygen atoms/ions to create an oxide. Some metals can form more than one oxide, and that is true for some of the elements in superalloys. There are three principal forms of oxidation: General or uniform oxidation (taking...