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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...), and transmission electron microscope-EDX. This review specifically addresses ToF-SIMS and describes some typical examples of the application of Auger and SEM-EDX. Auger spectroscopy dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy material characterization scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... curing. Potential energy sources include UV, electron beam (EB), visible infrared, and microwave sources. Cured materials are used as coatings, inks, adhesives, sealants, and potting compounds. The UV curing process typically involves the exposure of a reactive liquid that contains a photoinitiator...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550511
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... CERAMICS ARE INORGANIC NONMETALLIC MATERIALS that consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements bonded together with either ionic and/or covalent bonds. Although ceramics can be crystalline or noncrystalline, the important engineering ceramics are all crystalline. Due to the absence of conduction electrons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines some of the behaviors that suit materials for electrical and electronic applications. It begins by explaining how charge carriers move in metals and semiconductors and how properties such as conductivity, mobility, and resistivity are derived...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... is that the system failed even though all parts in the system met their drawing requirements. The common failures discussed in this chapter include those associated with metallic components, composite materials, plastic components, ceramic components, and electrical and electronic components. ceramic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract A pair of bolts on a connecting rod failed during a test run for a prototype engine. They were replaced by bolts made from a stronger material that also failed, one due to fatigue, the other by tensile overload. The fracture surfaces on all four bolts were examined using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110603
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-ray images of an authentic part Material evaluation and characterization Severity: may be destructive or nondestructive depending on the type of equipment used Tools/Equipment: XRF, environmental scanning electron microscope (E-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Eric , Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Microanalysis, A Textbook for Biologists, Materials Scientists, and Geologists , 2nd Edition , Plenum, New York , 1992 , p. 89 . 3. Electron Flight Simulator was originally published by Don Chernoff at Small World LLC, 2226 Chestertown Drive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... with a large number of replication tests. Structural materials, refractory and hard materials, and electronic materials are examples of sintered components. There also are many specialty products, such as filters, tissue-affixation devices, electrical contacts, and heat sinks. The structural applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... and the localized heating capabilities of induction heating are widely used in the electronics industry. The manufacture of semiconductor materials, silicon solar cells, and vacuum tubes are but a few of the products which make use of this heating technique. These and other applications are described next. Cap...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Emission – The General Phenomenon Electronic Material Properties and Light Emission Interband Relaxation - The Bipolar Mechanism (Recombination Related PE = R-PE) Intraband Relaxation - The Unipolar Mechanism (E-Field Assisted PE = F-PE) The Elementary pn Junction and Photon Emission FET...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... capable of being formed into load-bearing shapes and possessing properties that enable it to be used in the same manner as traditional materials, and that has high-performance properties that permit it to be used in the same manner as metals and ceramics. This definition includes thermoplastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... states of a higher band. When the valence band is completely filled and the next higher band, separated by an energy gap, is completely empty ( Fig. 17.4c ), the material is either an insulator or a semiconductor. If the gap is several electron volts wide, such as in diamond, where it is 7 eV, extremely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy of Materials IV, Materials Research Society , Pittsburgh , Vol 480 , 1997 , p 187 . 16. Subramanian S. , Schani P. , Widener E. , Moss J. and Soorholtz V. , Proceedings from the 24 th International symposium for Testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... with the sample. Mathematical methods make possible the simulation of these interactions and can be especially useful in understanding the combined effect of sample material, sample thickness, and acceleration voltage applied to the electrons. The simulator available at Ref 2 provides a good visualization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy analysis of (a) high-strength and (b) low-strength polyester-adhesive-brass laminates Fig. 3 Energy distribution of signals generated by the electron beam Fig. 5 Nonconductive material backscattered electron image using low-pressure imaging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... ( No. 3 ), 1993 , p 143 – 153 5.9 Gabriel B.L. , Scanning Electron Microscopy—A User’s Manual for Material Science , American Society for Metals , 1985 5.10 Core Laboratories , “ Electron Beam Sample Interaction ,” last modified 2018 , http://www.corelab.com/ps/cms/images...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... vacuum, typically 10 -4 Pa (~ 10 -6 Torr) or better to minimize scattering of the electron beam and to prevent contamination of the sample by beam-deposited materials. However, in some cases it is desirable to raise the chamber pressure. This can be achieved by “differential pumping” so...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... over ceramic materials for many engineering uses. Metallic bonding occurs when each of the atoms of the metal contributes its valence electrons to the formation of an electron cloud that surrounds the positively charged metal ions, as illustrated in Fig. 1.3 . Hence, the valence electrons...