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electron probe microanalysis

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast imaging, X...
Image
Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 5.16 Representative scanning electron micrographs showing Ni-20Cr coating on AISI 4130 steel substrate interface, (a) as sprayed and (b) after heat treatment. (c, d) Corresponding electron probe microanalysis elemental profiles indicating the interdiffusion of elements at the interface More
Image
Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 12.11 Light micrograph of 367 °C (693 °F) diffusion couple between pure aluminum and pure magnesium. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was used to identify the β, ε, and γ phases. Source: Ref 12.5 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 1.9 Composition gradients associated with internal oxidation. (a) Electron probe microanalysis of manganese, chromium, and nickel within the surface zone of 15C4rNi6 steel. Source: Ref 17 . (b) Chromium and manganese concentration gradients beneath the internally oxidized surface More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... versus position. This map provides a method for characterizing chemical inhomogeneities on a spatial resolution scale midway between the ~1 cm (~0.04 in.) range of bulk XRF and the ~1 μm scale of electron probe microanalysis, for example, characterizing segregation patterns in cross-sectioned ingots...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in the sample and generate, among other signals, characteristic X-rays. These X-rays are detected and identified for qualitative analysis, and with the use of suitable standards, they can be corrected for matrix effects in order to perform quantitative analysis. Electron probe microanalysis is used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... identification capabilities. If these capabilities are not available to the failure analysis team, many commercial laboratories can provide the services. Chemical and materials analysis technologies include energy-dispersive analysis of x-rays, spectrographic techniques (including electron probe microanalysis...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... present, but the phases themselves cannot be identified positively. Such identification is done indirectly as a result of correlations that have been established throughout the years by positive techniques, such as electron or x-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, electron probe microanalysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...%; accuracy, semiquantitative; lateral resolution, 20 to 200 μm Electron probe microanalysis: Applicable to elements heavier than boron; accessible range, 0.001 to 10%; accuracy, 5 to 10%; lateral resolution, 0.2 to 1 μm Techniques for Surface Chemical Analysis Auger electron spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and emitted x-rays and the methods used to access it, namely wavelength and energy dispersive spectroscopy and electron backscattering diffraction techniques. It also describes the role of focused ion beam milling in sample preparation and provides information on atom probes, atomic force microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This article presents methods that enable one to consistently, uniformly and quickly remove substrate silicon from units without imparting damage to the structure of interest. It provides examples of electron beam probing and backside nano-probing techniques. The electron beam probing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... equipment. This chapter describes how these instruments can be used to gather important information about a microstructure. The instruments covered include image analyzers, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes, electron probe microanalyzers, scanning transmission electron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... + [7] 2.73 for Xe + [7] Secondary electron yield (30 kV on Al) 1.4 for Ne; 1.1 for He [8] 0.7 for Ga [9] 0.8 for Xe [8] Common applications Surface imaging, circuit edit, cross-section imaging, probe pad connections TEM lamella preparation, cross-sectioning, circuit edit, 3D...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Spectroscopy (EDS). In Electron Probe Microanalyzers the spectra are resolved with better resolution by diffraction of the characteristic Xrays from single crystals in a process referred to as Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy (WDS) ( Ref 1.3 ). Auger Electron Spectroscopy The X-ray spectra generated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... is then attached to the grid by ion beam assisted metal deposition and subsequently isolated from the probe by cutting the sample from the probe. The area of interest is then thinned for electron transparency using the FIB ( Figure 7(b)) . This lift-out approach eliminates the uncertainties of the glass needle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... of characterization techniques that use a focused, convergent electron beam to probe a sample. As in conventional SEM, the beam is typically rastered across a sample to generate an image pixel-by-pixel. Unlike SEM however, images are not formed with secondary electrons (SEs) emitted from the sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... with photons, x-rays, ions, neutrons, or electrons and analyzing the radiation emitted and/or reflected from the surface. Other techniques use other interactions, such as physical probing of the surface. Analyzing the chemistry and topography of failure surfaces is an important part of failure analysis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
..., which means that a few refinements are made to provide more performance or features over the last generation product. For the most part the design and layout software Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools which also produce the GDSII (Graphic Database System) used for IC computer aided design (CAD...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... is revealed. Investigation by electron probe microanalysis has failed, however, to confirm that Oberhoffer’s reagent directly detects segregation of either phosphorus or any other common alloying elements ( Ref 17 ). The effects developed by both the persulfate and Oberhoffer’s etch seem to be related...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... may be detected by vacuum emission equipment.) Full range of photomultipliers may not be available. C.6 Electron probe microanalysis Analysis by crystal spectrometry or energy dispersion of x-rays emitted as a result of applying a focused (1 μm diam) electron beam to a surface Qualitative...