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electron microscopy

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... at low magnification one can increase the working distance which will produce a lower beam deflection angle for a given magnification. Figure 11 Pincushion distortion in a low magnification SEM image. Sample Charging One of the greatest challenges in scanning electron microscopy is how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract The ultimate goal of the failure analysis process is to find physical evidence that can identify the root cause of the failure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize subtle defects. This article discusses the sample preparation procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the use of electron microscopy in metallographic analysis. It explains how electrons interact with metals and how these interactions can be harnessed to produce two- and three-dimensional images of metal surfaces and generate crystallographic and compositional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. B.8 Cast Rene 220 nickel-base superalloy using dark-field electron microscopy. Showing γ″ disks with finer, less extensive γ′ in background. The specimen was electropolished and etched with methanolic 10% HCl. More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.9 Scanning electron microscopy backscattered electrons image of the corrosion products showing initiation of sulfidation attack on the tube, where pitting attack was observed on the tube surface as shown in Fig. 10.8 Chemical compositions of the phases of the corrosion products More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 10.10 Scanning electron microscopy backscattered electrons image of the corrosion products showing ash deposits and iron oxides with no evidence of sulfidation attack on other area of the tube that did not suffer pitting attack ( Fig. 10.8 ). Chemical compositions of the phases More
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Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 15.22 Transmission electron microscopy image of martensite present in Cu-11.4Al-5Mn-2.5Ni-0.4Ti (wt%). Melt spun at a wheel speed of 6.5 m/s. Precipitates of Cu 2 AlTi are visible, dispersed evenly across the different grains. Source: Ref 15.14 as published in Ref 15.13 More
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Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 15.23 Transmission electron microscopy images of splat-cooled Ni-37.5Al (at.%) showing accommodating martensite groupings. Source: Ref 15.15 as published in Ref 15.13 More
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Published: 01 March 2012
Fig. 16.8 Transmission electron microscopy bright field micrograph showing Ti 5 Si 3 precipitates at dislocations in a Ti 52 Al 48 -3Si 2 Cr alloy. Source: Ref 16.7 as published in Ref 16.2 More
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Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 30 Fans. (a) Examples of fans in a two-stage transmission electron microscopy replica of a cleavage fracture surface of iron. The river lines point back to the crack initiation site. (b) Fans on a scanning electron microscopy image. Source: Ref 14 , 15 More
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Published: 01 November 2012
Fig. 6 Scanning electron microscopy view of the surface of the tensile test fracture in 18% Ni, grade 300 maraging steel, showing a portion of the central zone of the fracture, close to the origin. The surface here is composed of equiaxed dimples of two sizes. The large dimples probably formed More
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Published: 01 June 2016
Fig. 5.15 (a) Focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy image of aluminum particle dissected using Ga + ions. (b, c) Secondary electron micrographs of aluminum particles adhering to ceramic (lead-zirconium titanate) surface. Source: Ref 5.39 More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 10.8 Scanning electron microscopy studies of fatigue-fracture surface by replication. Material: 7075-T6 aluminum alloy; fatigue life, 56,000 cycles. Source: Ref 10.31 More
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Published: 01 March 2006
Fig. 10.9 Use of transmission electron microscopy to observe formation of substructure in aluminum; total strain range = 0.004, life ≈ 500,000 cycles. Source: Ref 10.12 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... coatings. The techniques covered are optical microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, focused ion beam machining, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, and electron backscattered diffraction. The techniques also include electron channeling contrast imaging, X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.t56000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the principles of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) as implemented using conventional scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). It describes the pros and cons of low-energy imaging and diffraction, addresses basic hardware requirements, and provides...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and electron microscopy. It presents a number of images recorded using these methods and explains what they reveal about the mode of fracture and the state of the component prior to failure. fractography microscopic examination macroscopy IN FAILURE ANALYSIS, examination is done at various levels...
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Published: 01 August 1999
Fig. 13 Alloy 7075-T6 aircraft wing panel (a) showing unusual surface appearance. (b) Cracked anodized coating on the panel surface. Scanning electron microscopy. 160×. (c) Anodized coating flaking away and corrosion deposit under the coating. Scanning electron microscopy. 85× (d) Cross More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... practices, as well as from different polishing times, are presented. Additionally, the article discusses the factors in optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy that affect microstructure interpretation. air plasma spraying artifacts metallographic preparation microstructure optical...