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electron beam welding defects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of service failures. The discussion covers various factors that may lead to the failure of arc welds, electroslag welds, electrogas welds, resistance welds, flash welds, upset butt welds, friction welds, electron beam welds, and laser beam welds. corrosion deformation fracture inspection mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... electron-beam, plasma arc, electroslag, friction, and resistance welding. In general, the types of discontinuities associated with these processes are the same as those associated with conventional arc welding; however, because of the nature of the processes and the joint configurations involved...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and elemental analyses capabilities, has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize such subtle defects. In a transmission electron microscope, a high energy (80 to 300 keV) electron beam is transmitted through the thinned area of interest of the sample. During the transmission process, a variety of beam...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... weld of alpha-beta alloy Ti-6Al-4V. (a) 10×. (b) 240× Fig. 9.2 Macrograph showing columnar beta grains in a Ti-6Al-4V laser beam weld. 13× Fig. 9.3 Macrograph showing coarse prior-beta grain size in weld metal of an electron beam-welded Ti-6Al-4V forging Fig. 9.4...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... Abstract This article discusses the fusion welding processes that are most widely used for joining titanium, namely, gas-tungsten arc welding, gas-metal arc welding, plasma arc welding, laser-beam welding, and electron-beam welding. It describes several important and interrelated aspects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... the welding processes that are adaptable to titanium and its alloys. Acceptable processes include gas tungsten arc, plasma arc, gas metal arc, electron beam, friction stir, and resistance spot and seam welding methods where, depending on the method, inert gas, vacuum, and/or metal contact provide the required...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... However, many features that affect performance are too fine to be resolved in the light microscope, for example, fine precipitates and crystal defects, and for the characterization of such features, electron microscopy must be used. In view of the fact that light microscopy was the only technique...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of transverse section of an electron-beam welded butt weld joining 2.5 mm (0.100 in.) thick Ti-6Al-4V sheet using a 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) thick tantalum shim placed in the joint. Kroll’s reagent was used as etchant. In addition, a number of very application-specific corrosion and elevated-temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... reflected from an interface or flaw and the time required from pulse initiation for the ultrasonic beam to reach the interface or flaw. Ultrasonic Flaw Detectors Although the electronic equipment used for ultrasonic inspection can vary greatly in detail among equipment manufacturers, all general...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... The condition of supporting elements and load-carrying beams, tie down bolts, and sliding feet General condition of coatings Condition of shell barrels, heads, cones, nozzles, and associated welds for signs of distress, corrosion, or cracking. Any deformation present shall be measured. Earthing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Surface Modification Laser and electron beams provide very high energy, directed sources of heat, and are used for many surface-modification techniques. Depending on power input, high-energy beams may be used for cutting and welding, surface melting and alloying, and localized surface heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... that are of the order of 1000 W/cm 2 , such as oxyacetylene flames or electroslag welding, require interaction times of 25 s with steel, whereas laser and electron beams, at 1 MW/cm 2 , need interaction times on the order of only 25 μs. Welders often begin their training with the oxyacetylene process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... configuration. Process suitability must consider component size and shape. For example, will the component fit in an available electron beam welding (EBW) chamber or brazing furnace? If necessary, can the entire part be suitably protected from the atmosphere during a diffusion bonding or a fusion welding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and electron beam welding. The welding operations should be designed to minimize heat input, thermal stresses, grain growth, and concentration of weld defects. Two principal concerns associated with the fusion welding of beryllium are the control of weld metal grain size and size of the heat-affected zone HAZ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... as assembly errors, abnormal operating conditions, and inadequate maintenance. It also describes the precise usage of terms such as defect, flaw, imperfection, and discontinuity. failure analysis hip implants I beams manufacturing defects piston heads porcelain insulators quill shafts shaft...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... The most effective method for the inside flaw inspection of cold drawn bars is ultrasonic flaw detection. However, it is necessary to detect the smaller defects in the near surface area. The conventional normal beam method ( Fig. 4a ) is not satisfactory, because of the untested area near the surface...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... elastically. A perfectly elastic material has an elastic recovery of 1; a perfectly plastic material has an elastic recovery of o. electron beam. A stream of electrons in an electronoptical system. electron beam welding. A welding process that produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... with additions of tungsten, niobium, hafnium, rhenium, and carbon. Welding Processes Tantalum and its alloys can be welded by gas metal arc welding (GMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), plasma arc welding, and electron-beam welding processes. Resistance spot welding of tantalum is also feasible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... ). Welding and cutting technologies are highly developed and have followed the continuous development of high-energy density power sources ( Ref 55 , 56 ). Of the laser and electron beam surface modification techniques, localized surface hardening is the most widely developed and applied. Fig. 16-15...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... include pressure testing or defect detection by electronic vision systems. The statistical analysis of scrap by defect types is also very helpful in identifying problem areas. In some cases, direct data input to a computer may not be feasible, but the benefits of entering data manually into a statistical...