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electron beam hardening

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-density surface modifications to steels. Included are descriptions of plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, ion implantation and mixing, physical vapor-deposition techniques, chemical vapor deposition, and transformation hardening and melting by laser and electron beams. Introduction Plasma Nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... that produce a hard quenched surface without introducing additional alloying species. This approach consists of hardening the surface by flame, induction, laser-beam, or electron-beam heating. More detailed information on surface hardening of steels can be found in Heat Treating , Volume 4 of the ASM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... and Panzer S. , Electron Beam Surface Hardening , Heat Treating , Vol 4 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1991 , p 297 – 311 7. Sandven O.A. , Laser Surface Hardening , Heat Treating , Vol 4 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1991 , p 286 – 296 Hardened Zones in Low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... Localized surface hardening (flame, induction, laser, and electron-beam hardening) Improved wear resistance through the development of a hard martensitic surface Laser melting Improved wear resistance through grain refinement and the formation of fine dispersions of precipitates Shot peening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., including fogs, sprays, quenching in dry dies, and fluidized beds. In addition, some processes, such as electron-beam hardening and high-frequency pulse hardening, are self-quenching. Very high temperatures are reached in the fraction of a second, and metal adjoining the small, localized heating area acts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... in steel. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 6 Scanning electron microscopy view of the surface of the tensile test fracture in 18% Ni, grade 300 maraging steel, showing a portion of the central zone of the fracture, close to the origin. The surface here is composed of equiaxed dimples of two sizes. The large...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... for induction, laser, or electron beam hardening. Radiometers and pyrometers are rugged, low-cost devices that can be used in an industrial environment for long-term process monitoring. Fig. 3 An optical pyrometer. Courtesy of The Pyrometer Instrument Company The advantage of radiation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... structure with carbon steels. It is usually only possible with thin materials (e.g., knives) or by selective hardening treatments such as flame hardening or laser- or electron-beam hardening. Carbon steels (e.g., 1080 and 1090) make the sharpest chef’s knives and scalpels because there are no other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Electron Beam Welding Laser Beam Welding More on Causes and Prevention of Weld Defects in Fusion Welding General Welding Fixtures Cobalt-Base Superalloys This chapter is about the joining of superalloys by nonmechanical means. As such, it is concerned with the broad categories of fusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...) and cementite particles (bright linear features) in a lath martensite crystal in 4130 steel tempered at 150 °C (300 °F). Dark field transmission electron micrograph taken with a transition carbide diffracted beam. Courtesy of M. Losz while at the Colorado School of Mines The transformation of retained...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... intensity (normalized) of a laser beam impinged at an angle to the surface of a metal being fatigued The development of the electron microscope has been a great boon to the study of fatigue mechanism. Basically, the concept of the electron microscope is analogue to the optical microscope, as seen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... THE WORD METAL , derived from the Greek metallon , is believed to have originated as a verb meaning to seek, search after, or inquire about. Today, a metal is defined as any element that tends to lose electrons from the outer shells of its atoms. The resulting positive ions are held together...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... for electron beam or laser localized surface hardening. The same can be said of diffusion heat treatments. In a survey of 800 commercial heat treating shops in the United States and Canada ( Ref 1 ), 70% offered carburizing services, of which: 48% offered gas atmosphere carburizing 19% offered pack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... compacts with densities more than 90%. Electron beam melting is sometimes used to reduce the impurity content of rhenium compacts. Chemical vapor deposition is an alternative fabrication method. Rhenium can be cold-worked, but because of its high work hardening rate, it must be annealed frequently between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive method in which beams of high frequency acoustic energy are introduced into a material to detect surface and subsurface flaws, to measure the thickness of the material, and to measure the distance to a flaw. This chapter begins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... oxyfuel; PAS, plasma arc spraying; EB, electron beam; SMAW, shielded metal arc welding; OAW, oxyacetylene welding Fig. 12.6 Two-body abrasion wear rates of various roller surfaces subjected to abrasion by silica-coated tape, where * indicates not age hardened. PVD, physical vapor deposition; TS...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4