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electromagnetic radiation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Three primary attenuation processes of electromagnetic radiation, namely photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production, are covered. The chapter then discusses the principles of shadow formation, the process involved in the conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...−either electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength or particulate radiation−by the part or test piece (object) being inspected. Because of differences in density and variations in thickness of the part, or differences in absorption characteristics caused by variations in composition, different...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... coming from the stars and the sun. It is a form of radiating energy that physics books call electromagnetic radiation. It consists of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields that give rise to the name electromagnetic. Light rays are thought of as waves propagating in a particular direction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... conduction to a fluid followed by translation), and by thermal radiation. Noncontact temperature sensors depend on the thermally generated electromagnetic radiation from a surface of a test object. Electromagnetic radiation is emitted from a heated body when electrons within the body change to a lower energy...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that includes x-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet and visible light, and infrared radiation, showing their relationship with wave length and photon energy. Source: Ref 1 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., γ-rays, and Neutrons Radiography using x-rays, γ-rays, and neutrons uses penetrating electromagnetic radiation or particle radiation. Internal flaws are detected by the difference in absorption of the radiation by the various regions of the component. Flaws in the component are recorded...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... heating include the following: A device or method for measuring workpiece temperature. This often consists of an instrument to be given a direct indication of surface or subsurface temperature (e.g., a thermocouple or radiation pyrometer). It can also consist of some indirect measurement that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... theorem is only valid for a continuous distribution of energies. However, the energy of an electromagnetic wave is quantized in units of hν . The theory of energy quantization led Max Planck to the correct equation to describe the blackbody radiation spectrum R T (ν) =  8πν 2 c 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract Electromagnetic induction, or simply "induction," is a method of heating electrically conductive materials such as metals. It is commonly used for heating workpieces prior to metalworking and in heat treating, welding, and melting. This technique also lends itself to various other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... are [ 1 ¯ 2 1 ¯ 0 ] and [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 20 ] , respectively. Fig. C.5 Example of Miller-Bravais directional indices for hexagonal planes. Source: Ref 1 C.5 X-Ray Diffraction for Determining Crystalline Structure X-rays are a form of high-energy electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... transmission of the required loads without failure for the prescribed product lifetime under anticipated environmental (thermal, chemical, electromagnetic, radiation, etc.) conditions. Optimum performance requirements may also include additional criteria such as minimum weight, minimum life cycle cost...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... to heat electrically nonconductive materials through radiation or conduction heat-transfer processes. Flux Concentrators When placed in an induction field, magnetic materials tend to gather the lines of flux. Such materials are said to have high permeability. On the other hand, nonmagnetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... such as machined coils need to have development programs with testing before the final coil design is produced. This appendix discusses materials used in coil building, coil design, and coil construction techniques. The electromagnetic flux fields and their influence on coil design are presented. In addition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Fig. 10 Infrared spectra of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Most polymer constituents absorb electromagnetic radiation in the IR region. Vibrational states of varying energy levels exist in the molecules. Transition from one vibrational state to another is related to absorption or emission...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... by bending of light around the edge of an object, leading to the development of an interference pattern. X-rays also undergo diffraction in a similar manner to light. In general, particles of media such as light, sound, or electromagnetic radiation, including x-rays and gamma rays, when made to fall...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... particle inspection) X-ray and neutron beam methods are examples of inspection techniques to examine the inside of objects to check for the presence of hypothesized failure causes. X-ray imaging techniques radiate an object with short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation. This allows one to view...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of light causing the Airy disk is a factor limiting the resolution of a well-corrected optical system. alignment. A mechanical or electrical adjustment of the components of an optical device so that the path of the radiating beam coincides with the optical axis or other predetermined path in the system...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
..., an electromagnetic field is generated around the coil. When a magnetic object (metal) enters the vicinity of the sensor, eddy currents build up in the object. This reduces the strength of the sensor’s own current. When, the reduction in the sensor’s own oscillation field reaches a certain level, an output circuitry...