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electromagnetic radiation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... Three primary attenuation processes of electromagnetic radiation, namely photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production, are covered. The chapter then discusses the principles of shadow formation, the process involved in the conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., the testpiece or object being evaluated, and a sensing material. These elements are shown schematically in Fig. 11 . Radiography is based on differential absorption of penetrating radiation−either electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength or particulate radiation−by the part or test piece (object...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
.... Noncontact temperature sensors depend on the thermally generated electromagnetic radiation from a surface of a test object. Electromagnetic radiation is emitted from a heated body when electrons within the body change to a lower energy state. Both the intensity and the wavelength of the radiation depend...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... electromagnetic radiation. It consists of combined alternating electric and magnetic fields that give rise to the name electromagnetic. Light rays are thought of as waves propagating in a particular direction (at the speed of light, or 186,000 mile/s) and having electrical field intensities that vary, as shown...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ¯ 2 1 ¯ 0 ] and [ 1 ¯ 1 ¯ 20 ] , respectively. Fig. C.5 Example of Miller-Bravais directional indices for hexagonal planes. Source: Ref 1 X-rays are a form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation with short wavelengths. Since the wavelengths of x-rays...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... The method is limited to conducting materials. Radiography using x-rays, γ-rays, and neutrons uses penetrating electromagnetic radiation or particle radiation. Internal flaws are detected by the difference in absorption of the radiation by the various regions of the component. Flaws in the component...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Fig. 9 Infrared spectra of polyformaldehyde Fig. 10 Infrared spectra of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene Most polymer constituents absorb electromagnetic radiation in the IR region. Vibrational states of varying energy levels exist in the molecules. Transition from one vibrational...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... particle inspection) X-ray and neutron beam methods are examples of inspection techniques to examine the inside of objects to check for the presence of hypothesized failure causes. X-ray imaging techniques radiate an object with short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation. This allows one to view...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... heating include the following: A device or method for measuring workpiece temperature. This often consists of an instrument to be given a direct indication of surface or subsurface temperature (e.g., a thermocouple or radiation pyrometer). It can also consist of some indirect measurement that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... with a final probe diameter as small as about 10 Å is produced by heating a filament made up of tungsten or single-crystal lanthanum hexaboride (LaB 6 ). The beam is accelerated to a potential of 5–50 KV and is focused on the sample surface using a set of electromagnetic lenses. Figure 5.10 shows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the continuously available empty electron states. Metals are opaque to all electromagnetic radiation on the low end of the frequency spectrum, from radio waves through infrared, the visible, and into approximately the middle of the ultraviolet radiation. However, metals are transparent to high-frequency x- and γ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., either as polished or plated substrate. The near transparency of beryllium to x-rays and other high-energy electromagnetic radiation is responsible for its widespread use in foil gage as windows in x-ray tubes and radiation-detection devices. While beryllium can be melted and cast, the resulting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... to x-rays and other forms of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. The disadvantages of beryllium include high cost, somewhat difficult fabrication, and the toxicity of dust and airborne particulates (see the section “ 4.12 Health and Safety ” in this chapter). Unalloyed beryllium is readily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... of energies. However, the energy of an electromagnetic wave is quantized in units of hν . The theory of energy quantization led Max Planck to the correct equation to describe the blackbody radiation spectrum R T (ν) =  8πν 2 c 3 ⋅ hν e hν kT −1 dν...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... Abstract Electromagnetic induction, or simply "induction," is a method of heating electrically conductive materials such as metals. It is commonly used for heating workpieces prior to metalworking and in heat treating, welding, and melting. This technique also lends itself to various other...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of Sandia National Laboratories. Source: Ref 1 Due to the dual particle and wave nature of electromagnetic radiation, a simple beam of x-rays can be thought of both as a wave with a characteristic wavelength and a stream of photons each having the same characteristic energy. The photon energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and thicknesses; versatile; film provides record of inspection Radiation safety requires precautions; expensive; detection of cracks can be difficult unless perpendicular to x-ray film. Pipeline welds for penetration, inclusions, and voids; internal defects in castings Visual optical Surface characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... to heat electrically nonconductive materials through radiation or conduction heat-transfer processes. References 1. Lozinskii M. G. , Industrial Applications of Induction Heating , Pergamon Press , London , 1969 When placed in an induction field, magnetic materials tend...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... such as machined coils need to have development programs with testing before the final coil design is produced. This appendix discusses materials used in coil building, coil design, and coil construction techniques. The electromagnetic flux fields and their influence on coil design are presented. In addition...