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electrolytic etching

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... an “etched” condition suitable for structure examination. Standard chemical etching solutions are most commonly employed, but other methods are also used such as anodizing and electrolytic and potentiostatic etching. Techniques using heat, such as heat tinting or thermal etching, are useful and have wide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... 100× Fig. 8.6 Hot cracking in a weld of 309 stainless steel. The crack follows the branches of the dendrites. Electrolytic etch with 60% nitric acid and 40% water using 5 V. 500× Fig. 8.52 Differential interference contrast used to reveal cold work in an AISI/SAE 1018 steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... is usually conducted using a rotating wheel . Mechanical Polishing Electrolytic Polishing Chemical Polishing Metallographic etching encompasses all processes used to reveal particular structural characteristics of a metal that are not evident in the as-polished condition. Examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... on 120-, 240-, and 400-grit polishing papers. Rotate 90° between papers. Lubricant not indicated To be followed by electrolytic polishing and etching Noland et al. [1948] 2. Mechanical grinding (1750 rpm) on successive 120-, 240-, and 400-grit discs. Use 120-grit disc wet or dry; may usually...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...-dimensional view. 5×. 2% nital etch. (Courtesy of Samuel Lawrence, Bethlehem Steel, Homer Research Center) Fig. 7.44 Basic laboratory setup for electropolishing and electrolytic etching Fig. 7.10 Macro- and micrographs of a cast high-carbon, high-chromium grinding ball cut with an abrasive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...× Fig. 4.18 Stress-corrosion cracking found at the root of a thread on the fractured bolt shown in Fig. 4.17 . Unetched. 32× Fig. 4.19 The stress-corrosion cracks in Fig. 4.18 are shown following delta ferrite stringer in the austenite matrix. Electrolytically etched in 10% oxalic acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Inclusions,” in this book). (a) Austenite (light) with ferrite (vermicular). (b) Higher-magnification image of similar region. The straight δ–γ boundaries suggest some preferred crystallographic orientation between the phases. Electrolytic etched with 60% (vol) HNO 3 solution. Reproduced from Ref 16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Tantalum (Ta) Tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2 O 5 ) Ta/MnO 2 Ta/Conductive Polymer Ta/liquid electrolyte Porous Ta anode Aluminum (Al) Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) Al/Conductive Polymer Al/Liquid Electrolyte Etched Al foils Ceramics BaTiO 3 , CaZrO 3 , etc. BME (base metal electrode Cu, Ni) PME...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...% Cr-12% Ni heat-resistant HH steel with grain-boundary carbides showing (a) an unfocused field diaphragm, (b) a focused field diaphragm, and (c) the focused field of view. When the field diaphragm is in focus, the field of view on the specimen is in focus. Electrolytic etch (60 ml nitric acid in 40 ml...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... a microstructure consisting of 100% austenite. The straight-edged areas (marked by arrows) within the grains are annealing twins. Electrolytically etched in 60 parts nitric acid in 40 parts water, stainless steel cathode, at 6 V direct current. 200× Fig. 1.12 Family relationships for standard ferritic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Figure 1-1 Cold etch of disc cut from small ingot (10% aqueous HNO 3 ). Figure 1-2 Macrostructure of centrifugally cast 99.8% aluminum after a minor amount of reduction (3¼ ×; etchant, solution of 5 mL HNO 3 , 5 mL HCl, 5 mL HF, and 95 mL H 2 O). (Courtesy of R. D. Buchheit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... weld. Electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid. 200×. Fig. 10 Intergranular corrosion of the inside surface HAZ of E-Brite stainless steel adjacent to the weld fusion line. Electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid. 100× Fig. 4 Cross sections of partial penetration gas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... occurred in the work-hardened neck regions of a type 316L stainless steel screen that was exposed to printing press exhaust fumes. (a) Unetched, picture width ~6 mm. (b) Enlarged view of the cracks. 10% oxalic acid electrolytic etch, picture width ~1.5 mm. Source: Ref 15.5 , courtesy of M. Chaudhari...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... be performed with an abrasive slurry applied to the wire, by a chemical solution (generally acidic) dripped onto the wire, or by electrolytic action. Although cutting rates are very low, the deformation produced is negligible. Wire saws employing abrasives are quite popular in the electronics industry...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and pearlite of the base steel. 4% picral etch. 500× Fig. 3.53 Microstructure of a machined AISI 316 stainless steel bar showing (a) deformation bands at the surface and (b) annealing twins at the center. Electrolytic etch of 10% oxalic acid in water, stainless steel cathode, 6V, 10 s. 200...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of a contaminated E-Brite ferritic stainless steel weld. Electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid. 200× Fig. 40 Intergranular corrosion of the inside surface heat-affected zone of E-Brite stainless steel adjacent to the weld fusion line. Electrolytically etched with 10% oxalic acid. 100× Fig...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... when the temper brittleness results from segregation of phosphorus to the grain boundaries. Saturated solution of ammonium nitrate in water. Etch electrolytically at approx. 0.1 A/cm 2 at 6 V for up to 3 min. Specimen anode. The cathode may be of platinum or stainless steel. Distinguishes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... and standardized for evaluating the susceptibility of various alloys to IGA. For example. ASTM A 262 contains six practices for detecting susceptibility to IGC in austenitic stainless steels ( Ref 14 ). Practice A is an electrolytic oxalic-acid-etch screening test that can be performed in minutes on prepared...