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electrochemical reactions

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... CN − + e +1103 (a) Selected values from Ref 2 , 7 , and 8 . Summary of electrochemical cell conventions, terminology, and relationships Table 2.2 Summary of electrochemical cell conventions, terminology, and relationships Comment Representation Cell reaction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of electrochemical theory as it pertains to corrosion resistance of stainless steels. The discussion provides an overview of electrochemical reactions, Faraday's law, the Nernst equation, galvanic versus electrochemical cells, corrosion tendency, and Pourbaix diagrams. corrosion stainless steel corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... reaction between a material and its environment that causes the material and its properties to degrade. In most cases, it refers to the electrochemical oxidation of metals accompanied by the production of oxides or salts of the base material. This chapter discusses the process of corrosion and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...Abstract Abstract Corrosion can be defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material, usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the material and its properties. This chapter describes the effects and economic impact of corrosion in major industrial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to the potential-pH diagram Fig. 15 Corrosion of iron in hydrochloric acid Fig. 16 Free energy and electrochemical potential for an activation-controlled reaction. Reaction rate increases exponentially with driving force. Fig. 31 Equilibrium or steady-state free-energy condition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter familiarizes readers with the basic concepts of corrosion, discussing chemical reactions, ion transfer mechanisms, electrochemical processes and variables, and the formation of solid corrosion products. It presents a simple but effective teaching tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... is the metal (M a ) that undergoes an oxidation reaction and gives up electrons to the circuit: (Eq 18.1) M a → M n + + n e − Fig. 18.3 Basic electrochemical cell A reduction reaction, which is the reverse of the anode reaction, occurs at the cathode: (Eq 18.2) M...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... area, powder flow and rheology, and chemical analysis. The chapter then describes the general categories of powder fabrication methods, namely mechanical comminution, electrochemical precipitation, thermochemical reaction, and phase change and atomization. It provides information on the two largest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the electrochemical free energy through the interface between the metal and aqueous phases Fig. 3.7 Components for the experimental determination of polarization of electrochemical reactions Fig. 3.3 Anodic polarization curve representative of active/passive alloys. Oxide films forming...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of the Shape of Polarization Curves , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 104 , 1957 , p 645 – 655 10.1149/1.2428438 7. Kelly E.J. , The Active Iron Electrode I. Iron Dissolution and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions in Acidic Sulfate Solutions , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 112 , 1965 , p 124 – 131...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... and reusing the metal (step d). CORROSION, defined as the deterioration of a metal due to chemical or electrochemical reactions with its environment ( Ref 1 ), is of enormous economic cost to society. The most recent U.S. cost study was conducted in 1998 and estimated the direct costs of corrosion at 3.1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of alloys toward crevice corrosion. Crevice corrosion involves three fundamental types of processes: electrochemical reactions, homogeneous chemical reactions, and mass transport. The electrochemical reactions include both dissolution and reduction reactions. The spatial variation of the rates...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to be autocatalytic in nature; once a pit starts to grow, the local conditions are altered such that further pit growth is promoted. The anodic and cathodic electrochemical reactions that comprise corrosion separate spatially during pitting ( Fig. 2 ). The local pit environment becomes depleted in cathodic reactant...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... uniform corrosion localized corrosion mechanically assisted degradation environmentally induced cracking microbiologically influenced corrosion metallurgically influenced corrosion WHILE CORROSION CAN TAKE MANY FORMS, it is most generally defined as a chemical or electrochemical reaction between...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... rxn ) corresponding to a spontaneous electrochemical reaction forming a galvanic cell. E rxn is obtained as: (Eq 1) E r x n = E r x n 0 − R T n F ln ( p 1 α 1 p 2 α 2 p 3 α 3 ⋯ r 1 β 1 r 2 β 2 r 3 β...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and Electrochemical Methods)” (a) ANSI, American National Standards Institute Fig. 4 Schematic presentation of corrosion reaction in galvanic coupling of zinc and platinum Fig. 1 Schematic presentation of corrosion metal cell formed by anodic (A) and cathodic (C) sites. The A sites (M e...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of this chapter. Atmospheric Tests Electrochemical test methods primarily focus on the control and measurement of the fundamental properties of electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical potential is equivalent to the driving force for reactions, and it determines the reactions that can occur...