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electrochemical potential

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... A.J. and Loud N.A.S. , Standard Aqueous Electrode Potentials and Temperature Coefficients at 25 °C , Hampel , Skokie, IL , 1964 10.1149/1.2423547 9. Pourbaix M. , Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria , Pergamon Press , 1974 10.1007/978-1-4684-1806-4_4 10. Pourbaix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... electrochemical corrosion circuit, using it to explain how electric potential differences drive the corrosion process and how corrosion rates vary in proportion to current density. The chapter concludes with a discussion on the importance of corrosion products, such as oxides and hydroxides, and how their...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... electrolytic solution. It describes how corrosion potentials and current densities are measured and explains how to deal with various sources of error. It also explains how electrochemical impedance measurements are used and describes the underlying theory and procedures in some detail. corrosion rate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... energy and electrochemical potential, the effect of ionic concentration on electrode potential, and the corrosion behavior of a metal based on its potential-pH diagram. The corrosion (potential-pH) behavior of iron, gold, copper, zinc, aluminum, and titanium are described. Understanding the kinetics of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... cases, produce changes in electrode potential. corrosion current density electrode kinetics half-cell reaction polarization Electrochemical cells associated with corrosion obviously are not at equilibrium. Net anodic and cathodic currents flow to and from the surface over areas that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion rate current density electrode half-cell reaction polarization If two or more electrochemical half-cell reactions can occur simultaneously at a metal surface, the metal acts as a mixed electrode and exhibits a potential relative to a reference electrode that is a function of the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... Additional information on the structures must be inferred from characteristics of the polarization curves, the potential decay curves, and other electrochemical measurements. A major controversy among investigators concerns whether the initial state of passivation is only a chemisorbed monolayer of oxygen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... 10.1520/STP35425S 28. Leckie H.P. and Uhlig H.H. , Environmental Factors Affecting the Critical Potential for Pitting in 18-8 Stainless Steel , J. Electrochem. Soc. , Vol 113 , 1968 , p 1262 – 1267 10.1149/1.2423801 29. Galvele J.R. , Present State of Understanding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Loss) of Sheet Steel during Immersion in Sulfuric Acid Solution • C 876, Test Method for Half-Cell Potentials of Uncoated Reinforcing Steel in Concrete • D 130, Test Method for Detection of Copper Corrosion from Petroleum Products by the Copper Strip Tarnish Test • D 610, Test Method for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... embrittlement is the predominant mechanism. It explains how different application variables affect SCC, including loading mode, state of stress, type of steel, temperature, electrochemical potential, heat treatment, and deformation processes. It also compares SCC characteristics in different high-strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... alloys were developed with the intention of preventing corrosion. This chapter aims first to provide an introduction to the fundamentals of electrochemical theory as it pertains to corrosion. Thermodynamics are presented in light of electrochemical potentials as opposed to purely chemical ones. Chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... battery, where electrons flow from the corroding zinc to the iron. The corrosion potential of zinc is more anodic than iron, which means that zinc generates a more negative electromotive force (emf) than iron. The previous example illustrates the basic electrochemical reactions in the corrosion of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of cathodic protection. The active (impressed-current) type is discussed in section 18.3.3, “Electrochemical Control,” in this chapter. When two different metals (or a metal and a conducting nonmetal) are placed in electrical contact in the presence of an electrolyte, a potential or voltage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... electrolyte are in electrical contact. The metal in the galvanic couple with the lower corrosion (electrochemical) potential has its potential pulled in the positive direction by the metal that has the higher corrosion potential. This generally causes the metal or alloy with the lower potential to experience...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Electrochemical test methods primarily focus on the control and measurement of the fundamental properties of electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical potential is equivalent to the driving force for reactions, and it determines the reactions that can occur at the anode and cathode in an electrochemical cell...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... electrochemical potential gradient was shown to be: (Eq 7) J i = − c i B i ∂ ( μ i + z i F ϕ ) ∂ x where z i is the ion charge, F is Faraday’s constant (96,457 C/gram equivalent), and ϕ is the electric field (V). The electronic or ionic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
..., grain dropping , and “sugaring” are additional terms that are sometimes used to describe IGC. Electrochemical techniques used to study MIC include those in which no external signal is applied (redox potential, corrosion potential, electrochemical noise), those in which only a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... from polishing, cleaning, and degreasing sintered materials. Most electrochemical data are derived from polarization experiments. Figure 9.4 shows a schematic polarization curve for wrought stainless steel ( Ref 20 ) As the potential is increased from its open-circuit value or its corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the effects of microscopic organisms and the by-products they produce on the electrochemical corrosion of metals. It begins by considering the characteristics of organisms that allow them to interact with the corrosion processes, the mechanisms by which...