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electrochemical cell

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... energies of formation are determined using the oxidation of iron as an example. It then considers how iron reacts with hydrochloric acid, explaining how it can be expressed as two half reactions modeled as electrodes in an electrochemical cell. It goes on to describe the chemical reactions occurring at...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... theory as it pertains to corrosion resistance of stainless steels. The discussion provides an overview of electrochemical reactions, Faraday's law, the Nernst equation, galvanic versus electrochemical cells, corrosion tendency, and Pourbaix diagrams. corrosion stainless steel corrosion prevention...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corrosion and the factors that control the rates of corrosion reactions requires examination of the concepts of polarization behavior and identification of the various forms of polarization in an electrochemical cell. These concepts, addressed in the remaining of this chapter, include anodic and cathodic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract The basic concept for most methods of corrosion protection is to remove one or more of the electrochemical cell components so that the pure metal or metal alloy of interest will not corrode. Another widely used corrosion protection approach is to change the nature of the anode so that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... current density electrochemical corrosion electrometer reference electrode Electrochemical corrosion studies to determine both corrosion rates and behaviors frequently employ a potentiostatic circuit, which includes a polarization cell, as schematically shown in Fig. 6.1 . The working electrode...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... most readily understood in terms of a “dead-shorted” battery or electrochemical cell consisting of two half cells ( Fig. 1.5 ). In comparison with the battery, the solution or electrolyte above the corroding metal is the battery fluid, and the metallic path between the anodic site (exposed metal) and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... cases, produce changes in electrode potential. corrosion current density electrode kinetics half-cell reaction polarization Electrochemical cells associated with corrosion obviously are not at equilibrium. Net anodic and cathodic currents flow to and from the surface over areas that can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... corrosion rate current density electrode half-cell reaction polarization If two or more electrochemical half-cell reactions can occur simultaneously at a metal surface, the metal acts as a mixed electrode and exhibits a potential relative to a reference electrode that is a function of the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... reaction. Electrochemical processes require both oxidation and reduction reactions in order to maintain the conservation of electric charge. This process occurs in an electrochemical cell , which consists of an anode and a cathode immersed in an electrolyte (or general chemical surroundings). An anode...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... oxide. Therefore, in a corrosion cell, corrosion always takes place at the anode, which is the metal (M a ) that undergoes an oxidation reaction and gives up electrons to the circuit: (Eq 18.1) M a → M n + + n e − Fig. 18.3 Basic electrochemical cell A reduction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Electrochemical test methods primarily focus on the control and measurement of the fundamental properties of electrochemical reactions. The electrochemical potential is equivalent to the driving force for reactions, and it determines the reactions that can occur at the anode and cathode in an electrochemical cell...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... that form as charge-compensating defects serve as the “electron lead” in the electrochemical cell in Fig. 4b . The free energy of Reaction 4 determines the concentration of mobile defects and thus the diffusion coefficient and electrochemical mobility ( B e ) of the cation according to: (Eq 5...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... cover is built up. A scatter of individual barnacles on a stainless steel surface creates oxygen concentration cells. The portion of the metal surface covered by the barnacle shell is shielded from dissolved oxygen in the water and thus becomes the anode. The result is crevice corrosion under the base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... selected areas of a workpiece by exposing it to a chemical reagent. The material is removed by microscopic electrochemical cell action, as occurs in corrosion and chemical dissolution of a metal; no external circuit is involved. Surfaces not to be attacked are protected by an adhering mask that is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... , TaC, TiH 2 , and similar materials Electrochemical precipitation : Where solid deposition occurs from a solution in an electrolytic cell to form a dendritic or spongelike particle; usually pure transition metal elements, such as silver, gold, copper, platinum, chromium, palladium, and nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... from the coating and controls the corrosion. Cathodic protection suppresses the corrosion current that causes damage in a corrosion cell and forces the current to flow to the metal structure to be protected. Thus, the corrosion or metal dissolution is prevented. In practice, cathodic protection can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... deposits are dense. Their brittleness can be controlled to some extent by proper adjustment of the electrolytic cell conditions. The singularly outstanding quality of electrolytic powders is high purity. Before the advent of atomized powders, electrolytic iron and copper powders were widely used in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... has come from Birnbaum’s experiments using an environmental cell in the transmission electron microscope, or TEM ( Ref 3.16 ). Direct observation of foils has shown that the number of active dislocations suddenly increases when low-pressure hydrogen is introduced. The same behavior has been observed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... 2 − , COOH – , and CH 3 COO – , that may have a major influence on the corrosion mechanism process, which increases the corrosion current from electrochemical (galvanic) cells, and the resultant corrosion rate. Most aerosol particles absorb water, leading to an increase in the TOW period...