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electric arc furnace melting

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... for Figures References for Figures 1. Electric Furnace Steelmaking , a publication of The Iron and Steel Society, Inc., p 134 2. Electric Furnace Steelmaking , p 149 3. Electric Melting Technology , Vol 3 , Arc Melting of Cast Steel , AFS Cast Metals Institute Instructional Material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... life. The chapter explains how and why freckles form as well as how they can be prevented. It describes the criteria for selecting the proper melting method for specific alloys based on melt segregation and chemistry requirements. It compares standard processes, including electric arc furnace/argon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... of the furnace and strike an arc when supplied with electrical power, which generates the heat. 6.2 Cupolas—Types, Advantages, and Applications The cupola is the oldest iron melting device. The first cupola was installed between 403 and 221 B.C. in China, followed by integration of the blast furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... electrodes mounted through the roof carry the electric power to arc and melt the charge. Fig. 2.7 Electric arc furnace Scrap steel is layered in the furnace, with the finer charge placed at the top to prevent any physical damage to the graphite electrodes. The fine charge also helps to arc more...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... it, both carbon and oxygen. For these reasons, stainless steels are among the most difficult alloys to melt and refine. Nickel does not pick up either carbon or oxygen. A brief description of the three-step process generally used for the first 40 years is as follows: Melting: Load arc furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... iron. Recently direct reduction processes have benefited from carburizing the produced iron, so that a certain fraction of Fe 3 C (cementite) is formed. This carbide has a lower melting point than the metallic iron. When charged to electric furnaces (see the section “ The Electric Arc Furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... techniques as briefly described in this chapter. Melting can be performed using several different processes. Traditional melting methods include (but are certainly not limited to) crucible furnace melting, electric arc furnace (EAF) melting, induction melting, and vacuum induction melting (VIM). Molten...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... scrap is charged into the furnace from an overhead crane, and a lid is swung into position over the furnace. The lid holds graphite electrodes that are lowered into the furnace. An electric current is passed through the electrodes to form an arc, which generates the heat necessary to melt the scrap...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is produced in electric arc furnaces. In the process, flue dust with high zinc contents is treated to recover zinc. Lead battery plates are melted, refined, and recycled. The plastic case is shredded and recycled. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that approximately 80% of all lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... sufficient heat and flow of liquid iron oxide to melt the chromium oxide film when it is formed. The air carbon-arc process uses a DC power supply as a power source to supply a high amperage current to a carbon rod, usually 1/4 in. to 3/4 in. diameter. The electrode is positioned in an electrical contact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... at that time, despite major efforts. Residual magnesium chloride (MgCl 2 ) salts entrapped within the metal particles impaired the mechanical properties and weldability. High hydrogen levels also lowered property values. The other method explored by Kroll was an electric arc furnace invented by Werner von...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... surface appearance and accuracy and is particularly adapted to turbine blades and manifolds. Melting and Pouring Operations Melting and Pouring are summarized here and are detailed in Chapter 14 . Several types of melting furnaces are used in the production of steel castings. Electric Arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... of electricity expended each year, through heating (without melting) is probably the largest single use of induction heating in the metals industry. The principal applications of induction through heating include heating prior to hot working and through heating for purposes of heat treatment. The important hot...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
...% C, with silicon contents of 1.5 to 2.5%. Cast irons, which are melted in induction furnaces, cupolas, and electric arc furnaces, are generally produced by sand casting. Steels include all alloys containing less than 2% C, with additions of small amounts of manganese and silicon, and other alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...) NA A A A A A NA A LC A A Hot extrusion NA A LC LC A A NA A LC LC LC Rotary swaging NA A A A A LC LC A NA A A Machining from stock A A A A A A A A LC LC LC Electrochemical machining A A A A LC LC LC LC A A LC Electrical discharge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... such as rails. Portability is a great advantage. Electric Arc Welding Electric arc welding processes use electricity to produce the intense heat necessary for welding ( Fig. 1.6 ). Some electric arc processes use a consumable electrode that melts and becomes part of the weld metal that is deposited...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... them apart: Only scrap was used in the charge for the melting furnaces; electric arc furnaces (EAF) were used for melting; and steel was solidified into billets using continuous casting, which fed the billets directly into the rolling mills. Scrap had been melted in electric arc furnaces since...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract Arc welding applies to a large and diversified group of welding processes that use an electric arc as the source of heat to melt and join metals. This chapter provides a detailed overview of specific arc welding methods: shielded metal arc welding, flux cored arc welding, submerged arc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... and costly. Although soldered connections can be disconnected, removing the solder sometimes causes irreparable physical or electrical damage. Small wires with thin insulation can melt or burn off easily, and printed circuit boards can stand only so much heat before the circuit traces either lift off...