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electric arc furnace

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Published: 01 March 2002
Fig. 4.5 Schematic of electric arc furnace More
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Published: 01 November 2013
Fig. 4 Schematic cross section of a typical electric arc furnace showing the application of different refractories. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 October 2011
Fig. 5.15 Schematic diagram of an electric arc furnace More
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Published: 01 June 2008
Fig. 19.5 Electric arc furnace. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2022
Fig. 2.7 Electric arc furnace More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the processes, procedures, and equipment used in the production of iron, steel, aluminum, and titanium alloys. It describes the design and operation of melting and refining furnaces, including blast furnaces, basic oxygen and electric arc furnaces, vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... steel: the electric arc furnace and the basic oxygen furnace. It also provides information on the classification and specifications for various steels, namely, plain carbon steels, low-carbon steels, medium-carbon plain carbon steels, and high-carbon plain carbon steels. The chapter concludes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... advancements that led from open hearth steelmaking to basic oxygen processes and ultimately the electric arc furnace (EAF). It describes the versatility, efficiency, and scalability of the EAF process and its impact on recycling and sustainability. It explains how EAF refining and deoxidation practices have...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... life. The chapter explains how and why freckles form as well as how they can be prevented. It describes the criteria for selecting the proper melting method for specific alloys based on melt segregation and chemistry requirements. It compares standard processes, including electric arc furnace/argon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... to deoxidize. Silicon, carbon, and other elements are added to bring the composition to the desired specification. Figure 2.6 is a schematic that shows this concept. Fig. 2.6 Basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking 2.3.2 Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking Electric arc furnace (EAF) steelmaking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
... the electric arc furnace, a converter for preblowing, and a vacuum decarburization unit for final refining. Early in 1970, Union Carbide and Linde contacted virtually every major stainless steel producer in the world, offering licenses for the new process. Demonstrations were also offered at Joslyn’s Ft...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... be separated magnetically from other scrap. The scrap is either remelted in an electric arc furnace or added to pig iron in a basic oxygen furnace. All grades of steel can be recycled because most alloying elements are oxidized during processing. Tin and copper are the exceptions, and there is concern...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... them apart: Only scrap was used in the charge for the melting furnaces; electric arc furnaces (EAF) were used for melting; and steel was solidified into billets using continuous casting, which fed the billets directly into the rolling mills. Scrap had been melted in electric arc furnaces since...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... so that the furnace can be rapidly charged by a drop bottom charge bucket. The electric current arcs from the graphite electrodes to the charge. The arc is controlled automatically by continuously repositioning each individual electrode. The electric current leaves one electrode via an arc, flows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... surface appearance and accuracy and is particularly adapted to turbine blades and manifolds. Melting and Pouring Operations Melting and Pouring are summarized here and are detailed in Chapter 14 . Several types of melting furnaces are used in the production of steel castings. Electric Arc...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... techniques as briefly described in this chapter. Melting can be performed using several different processes. Traditional melting methods include (but are certainly not limited to) crucible furnace melting, electric arc furnace (EAF) melting, induction melting, and vacuum induction melting (VIM). Molten...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
..., of course, increase the furnace cost, it is reported that these efficiencies can be increased to perhaps 40 to 50%. In any case, it is obvious that the higher efficiencies of induction units can often offset the high cost of electricity. Fig. 12.1 Ratios of the price of electricity (per contained Btu...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... around 200 °C (400 °F) Why is plasma started at those temperatures? The cold-wall furnace uses a constant dc system, which requires plasma voltages around 600 to 800 V. Mechanical and metallurgical damage to the workpiece surface may occur by processing so close to the arc discharge region. The hot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... sufficient heat and flow of liquid iron oxide to melt the chromium oxide film when it is formed. The air carbon-arc process uses a DC power supply as a power source to supply a high amperage current to a carbon rod, usually 1/4 in. to 3/4 in. diameter. The electrode is positioned in an electrical contact...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... of metals invisible to the naked eye—was written by an Englishman, A.H. Hiorns. Ford started the practice of heat treating alloy steel car parts to make them stronger and more durable. 1906 : The first electric arc furnace is installed in the United States at Halcomb Steel Co., Syracuse, NY...