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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... 1,000 Mt/yr of steel. (Unless otherwise noted, the units of the International System, SI, are used in this book. Here, in particular, steel production is given in millions of metric tons.) The evolution of steel usage as an engineering material is related to many technical and economic aspects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... without causing any damage to the substrate material. Despite the claims for these low-temperature processes, it is likely that the economic aspects of powder spraying will make such processes marginal in the production of titanium alloy components. A related process is the laser forming of titanium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... corroded equipment or due to a corrosion product itself Depletion of natural resources, including metals and the fuels used to manufacture them Appearance as when corroded material is unpleasing to the eye Of course, all the preceding social items have economic aspects also (see the discussion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... materials aspects of wear such as: What is rubbing on what? What are the relative wear volumes? What is the mechanism of material removal as opposed to papers on the lubricants? What treatments and coatings are used to prevent wear? Everybody understands what wear is because...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... compaction. Additive manufacturing excels in forming most of these geometries but without tooling. For smaller production quantities, additive manufacturing ideas such as binder jetting prove most economical. After the shaping step, binder removal occurs by any of several approaches. Thermal burnout...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... as applications of the system. Factors concerning the economic justification of anodic protection are also described. References References 1. Riggs O.L. and Locke C.E. , Anodic Protection: Theory and Practice in the Prevention of Corrosion , Plenum Press , 1981 10.1007/978-1-4684-3872-7...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
..., and different gas supply systems have been adopted at different places. The following section deals with the aspects of high-pressure nitrogen supply systems for cold spray operations. There are various industrial gas nitrogen supply modes, including packaged gas cylinders, bulk gaseous tubes, liquid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...). The development of large-scale oxygen production (that could be blown economically in converters (see the section “ Oxygen Converters ,” next) and the price increase of the fuels usually employed in the BOH led to its almost complete disappearance by the 1970s. 2.2.1 Oxygen Converters 2.2.2 The Electric Arc...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
... 1.3 Reed R.P. Smith J.H. and Christ B.W. , “The Economic Effects of Fracture in the United States,” Special Publication 647-1, National Bureau of Standards, U.S. Department of Commerce , Gaithersburg, MD , 1983 10.6028/NBS.SP.647p1 1.4 Anon., Battelle Columbus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... drastically reduces metal removal requirements, resulting in significant material and energy savings. Metal forming usually requires relatively expensive tooling. Thus, the process is economically attractive only when a large number of parts must be produced and/or when the mechanical properties required...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... of type 410 martensitic stainless steel Fig. 11 Heat-recovery steam generator Fig. 12 Feedwater economizer, finned tube harp assembly Fig. 13 The iron-chromium (Fe-Cr) alloy phase diagram. Fig. 3 Grain boundary martensite formation in a type 430 ferritic stainless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
..., are sufficient for the purpose. The economics and practical aspects of the situation are usually overriding factors in the choice of a method of improving wear resistance. Evaluating the best type of coating or diffusion treatment for a given application can be fraught with frustration, because simulated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... and downstream equipment, modern control technology, and the optimization of tooling materials and tooling design. Knowledge of the fundamental principles of metallurgy, as well as the basics of deformation technology, machinery, and tooling, is needed to understand the extrusion process. All these aspects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... aspects of a metal. This primer supports the needs of engineering, management, and other professionals for information on titanium by providing a brief overview of the major topics that are discussed more thoroughly throughout the book. The information in this chapter will maximize the reader’s ability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
..., and an optimized index guideline for selecting the best material. Details on the benefits of AHSS on the life cycle of vehicles are provided. The chapter also provides information on recycling and the economics of AHSS. References References 16.1 World Steel Association, Sustainability Indicator...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...-refinement processes. General Aspects Titanium Ingot Production Primary Fabrication Titanium Sponge Alloying Elements Reclaimed Scrap (Revert) Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) Electrodes Traditional Melting Practice Modifying Microstructure and Macro-Structure Newer Melting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... of carbon and other elements during solidification and later decomposition of austenite. Etched in natal. 250×. Source: Ref 1 Abstract Abstract A successful heat treating operation is determined by the ability to satisfy the customer's quality requirements consistently and economically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... Steels—Metallographic Aspects Steels for Thick-Wall Pressure Vessels (High-Pressure Vessels) Welded Long Products—Bar Mats and Welded Wire Mesh Thick-Wall Pressure Vessel Welding Some Other Welding Related Aspects In many applications where high pressures are present, it is necessary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... by passing the flat strip through a series of contoured rotating roll pairs arranged in tandem ( Fig. 10.1 ). Fig. 10.1 Schematic illustration of the roll forming process A wide range of standard products can be produced economically by roll forming ( Fig. 10.2 ). These products can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... they are associated with massive economic impacts and frequently involve loss of life. Fig. 2 Appearance of (a) ductile and (b) brittle tensile fractures in unnotched cylindrical specimens. Courtesy of G. Vander Voort. Source: Ref 3 It is difficult to identify exactly when the problems of failure...