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duplex microstructure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... has been made in defining the correct parameters and chemistry modifications for achieving sound welds. This chapter provides a basic understanding of the development, grade designations, microstructure, properties, and general welding considerations of duplex stainless steel. It also discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... absence of a continuous austenite phase provides relief from SCC by having any propagation of cracks in austenite arrested by the ferrite phase. Fig. 1 Wrought 2205 duplex microstructure The optimization of the alloy system had to wait for two events, both related to nitrogen. First, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... electrolytic etching process is quite simple and effective and is described in this section. Stainless steels are generally grouped according to the matrix constituent, that is, ferritic, austenitic, and martensitic stainless steel. Some stainless steels have a duplex matrix of ferrite and austenite and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... oxygen in solidifying steel. Type I sulfides formed early in solidification may form as duplex inclusions with MnO. Type II MnS inclusions form as clusters of very fine rods in an interdendritic distribution. Figure 9.6 shows sets of the MnS rods in a deep-etched as-cast steel specimen ( Ref 9.16...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter explains how to achieve accurate, sharp delineation of the microstructure of metals using appropriate etching and contrasting techniques. It covers a variety of methods, including chemical etching, heat tinting, gas contrasting, vapor deposition, magnetic etching, ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... stage of the α aluminum grain nucleation ( Ref 27 , 28 ). The next theory is based on the “duplex nucleation” phenomenon. The refinement effect is explained by the formation of the Al 3 Ti layer on the surface of the solid TiB 2 particles as a result of the titanium segregation. Then, α aluminum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... stainless steel duplex stainless steel ferritic stainless steel intergranular corrosion martensitic stainless steel microstructure precipitation hardening stainless steel Steels with chromium contents above 12% show high resistance to oxidation and corrosion and are generally designated as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., polythionic acid, and high-temperature environments and the correlating effects on austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening stainless steels and nickel-base alloys. It also discusses the contributing effects of sensitization and hydrogen embrittlement and the role of composition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... optimized to produce high-quality austenitic, ferritic, and duplex stainless steels. alloy design alloying corrosion resistance microstructure phase equilibria stainless steel thermomechanical processing STAINLESS STEELS are a large group of special alloys developed primarily to withstand...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Duplex microstructure of alloy 255 (Ferralium). Ferrite-dark, austenite-light. Source: Ref 6 Table 23.7 Composition of duplex stainless steels Type Composition, wt% C Mn S P Si Cr Ni Mo N 2 Other 44LN 0.03 2.0 0.03 0.045 1.00 24.0–6.0 5.5–6.5 1.2–2.0 0.14–0.20...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
.... Stainless steels are commonly grouped into five families, four of which are based on microstructure. These are known as ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, and duplex. Duplex is a hybrid of austenitic and ferritic structures. The fifth family, known as the precipitation-hardening family, is distinguished by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... popularity until recently due to an increased need for stainless steels with improved strength and better resistance to chloride-induced SCC. Fig. 12.8 Example of a wrought 2205 duplex stainless steel microstructure. Ferrite, dark; austenite, light. Source: Ref 12.2 These alloys possess...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... is necessary. Recommendations for welding include either a 430 or a 309 type filler metal, the latter being used where increased weld ductility is desired. In the wrought condition, duplex stainless steels have microstructures consisting of a fairly even balance of austenite and ferrite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... are based on existing structures or on structures that can be attained in the steel by heat treatment. A fifth group of stainless steels—the duplex stainless steels—are supplied with a microstructure of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite. Duplex stainless steels are not covered by...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses different thermal processes applicable to the various alloy groups of stainless steels, namely austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex stainless steels. The processes discussed include soaking, annealing, stress relieving...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., manganese, and nitrogen, whereas elements such as silicon, molybdenum, and titanium restrict the Fe-Cr gamma loop. The actions of these elements form the metallurgical basis for the five microstructural categories of stainless steels (ferritic, austenitic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... microstructure of those phases. Each type of stainless steel belongs to a larger family, which is characterized by a single predominant phase or a combination of two. These are ferritic, austenitic, martensitic, precipitation hardening, and duplex (see the chapters on stainless steels, Chapters 6 to 10 , in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... warm work at lower temperatures for additional strengthening. However, the range of applications for superalloy forgings is so diversified that in some circumstances, the aim of the forging process may be to produce a duplex, not a single, grain size in the finished component. During the latter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Severe Corrosion Environments , Weld. J. , Vol 56 , 1977 , p 23s – 28s 23. Menendez H. and Devine T.M. , The Influence of Microstructure on the Sensitization Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel Welds , Corrosion , Vol 46 ( No. 5 ), 1990 , p 410 – 417 10.5006/1.3585125 24...