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ductile iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the metallurgy and properties of ductile cast iron. It begins with an overview of ductile or spheroidal-graphite iron, describing the specifications, applications, and compositions. It then discusses the importance of composition control and explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the composition and morphology of compacted graphite (CG) iron relative to that of gray and ductile iron. It explains that the graphite in CG iron is intermediate in shape between the spheroidal graphite found in ductile iron and the flake graphite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
...Abstract Abstract This article explains how malleable iron is produced and how its microstructure and properties differ from those of gray and ductile iron. Malleable iron is first cast as white iron then annealed to convert the iron carbide into irregularly shaped graphite particles called...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... discusses composition, microstructure, heat treatments, and the classification and casting characteristics of white, gray, ductile, malleable, compacted graphite, and special cast irons. chemical composition compacted graphite cast iron ductile cast iron gray cast iron heat treatment malleable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... or ductile cast iron Nodular graphite F, P, A Solidification or heat treatment Compacted graphite iron, GGI, or vermicular graphite iron, VG or GGV Compacted or vermicular graphite F, P Solidification White cast irons Cementite P, M Solidification and heat treatment (stress relief...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., V, Cr, Sn, Mo, and Mn) promote the formation of cementite. This chapter examines the relative potencies of these alloys and their effect on microstructure. It covers the five most common commercial cast irons, including white, gray, ductile, malleable, and compacted graphite, describing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... 0.8 0.20 0.10 … White cast iron 2.0–3.5 (all combined) 0.5–1.5 0.5 0.2–0.4 0.10 … Malleable cast iron 2.3 1.0 0.4 0.20 0.10 … Ductile cast iron Ferrite 3.5 2.5 0.2 0.05 0.01 0.04 Mg Pearlitic 3.5 2.5 0.4 0.05 0.01 0.04 Mg...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter covers the friction and wear behaviors of cast irons. It describes the microstructure and metallurgy of gray, white, malleable, and ductile cast irons, their respective tensile properties, and their suitability for applications involving friction, various types...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the composition, properties, microstructure, grain formation, and fracture behavior of gray, white, ductile, and malleable cast iron and how these critical factors are affected when iron is heated to different temperatures prior to or during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...) Added to steel for sulfide shape control (forms rounded, undeformable cerium sulfide inclusions). Strong deoxidizer Magnesium (Mg) Added to liquid cast iron to nucleate graphite nodules in ductile (nodular) iron Fig. 1.1 Classification chart for steels Fig. 1.7 Micrograph...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... characteristics of gear steels and the bending fatigue strength and properties of carburized steels are reviewed. In addition to wrought steels, the chapter provides information on the other iron-base alloys that are used for gears, namely cast carbon and alloy steels, gray and ductile cast irons, powder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... practices for annealing ductile iron castings Table 4 Recommended practices for annealing ductile iron castings Type of anneal Purpose Temperature (a) Time Cooling cycle (b) °C °F Low-temperature (ferritizing) In absence of carbides. To obtain grades 60-45–12, 60-40-18 720–730...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., economical, and competitive. Many ductile iron and stamped steel components have been successfully converted to aluminum alloys, and these products have been performing without any issues over many years. Aluminum’s major advantages and some of its familiar applications are listed in Table 1.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... dispersions of precipitates. All of these can contribute to the hardening and strengthening of the surface. Laser-melted surfaces of cast irons appear dendritic, as shown in Fig. 2(a) for gray iron and in Fig. 2(b) for ductile iron. Below the melt zone is the heat-affected zone, which appears in lighter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...) quenched and tempered condition with martensite. 2% nital and 4% picral etch. 40× Fig. 3.26 Microstructure of a ductile iron showing graphite nodules (gray) with rims of ferrite (white) in a matrix of pearlite. 4% picral etch. 100× Fig. 3.27 Microstructure of a graphite nodule...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., carbon is being removed from iron carbide (Fe 3 C) as a result of this chemical reaction, leading to decarburization in the affected region. The formation of microcracks and microfissures as well as decarburization causes the steel to lose its tensile and rupture strengths as well as ductility, thus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... in 687 hours with the gage section greatly reduced due to corrosion. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 1 Family relationships for standard martensitic stainless steels Abstract Abstract Martensitic stainless steels are essentially iron-chromium-carbon alloys that possess a body-centered tetragonal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...–285 655 95 90001 269–321 724 105 Source: Ref 1 Average mechanical properties of ductile cast iron Table 5.4 Average mechanical properties of ductile cast iron Nearest standard grade Hardness, HB Ultimate strength, MPa ksi 60-40-18 167 461 66.9 65-45-12 167...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...× Fig. 2.50 Mottled pearlitic cast iron. Gray iron at upper left and white iron at lower right of photo. 4% picral etch. 250× Fig. 2.51 Pearlitic ductile (nodular) cast iron (2.95% C, 0.36% Mn, 2.75% Si, and 0.09% Mg). Dark, rounded particles are graphite. 4% picral etch. 500× Fig...