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dual-energy imaging

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Published: 01 August 2018
side of the region to be sampled by sputtering using a high-energy ion beam (b–e). Images (d) and (e) are top views. The sample is separated from one edge using the ion beam, welded to a needle using an ion beam–assisted platinum deposition, separated from the other edge (f–i), and lifted out (j More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... of stacking faults, indicating a low level of stacking fault energy of 8 mJ/m 2 for Fe-24Mn compared to 15 mJ/m 2 for Fe-30Mn alloy. Fig. 13.10 Scanning electron microscope images of microstructure of (a) annealed and (b) deformed Fe-24Mn. Source: Ref 13.4 Analysis by EBSD gives a phase map...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to track the contour of the part and keep the transducers normal to the surface. They also index at the end of each scan pass. The ultrasonic energy is converted to digital data and stored in a file. Imaging software allows C-scan displays in either shades of gray or color. Modern units are capable of scan...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., particularly Fig. 11.24 and 11.29 , present some examples of the use of EDS to identify the composition of nonmetallic inclusions. Besides acquiring complete spectra of the observed energies, the x-ray signal (EDS or WDS) can be used to generate an image that shows the regions where there is a larger...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... information about the defect. Various elemental analysis techniques, namely energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and energy-filtered TEM, are described using examples encountered in failure analysis. The origin of different image contrast mechanisms, their interpretation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... if the material is not commonly found in integrated circuits. Figure 10 and Figure 11 respectively show the Scanning Electron image and material composition identified using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of the contaminant observed during optical inspection in Figure 1 . Contaminant material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... These screens are used to improve radiographic contrast by intensifying the conversion of radiation and by filtering the lower energy radiation produced by scattering. Permanent images are recorded on x-ray film, radiographic paper, or electrostatically sensitive paper such as is used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter discusses various alloying and processing approaches to increase the strength of low-carbon steels. It describes hot-rolled low-carbon steels, cold-rolled and annealed low-carbon steels, interstitial-free or ultra-low carbon steels, high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steels, dual-phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) In addition to nanofabrication and imaging capabilities, FIBs can be utilized to perform powerful chemical analysis both directly and indirectly. A dual beam configuration, in combination with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), indirectly enables 3D tomography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... the analysis and the sputter parameter independently, e. g. the combination of a low energy sputter beam of O 2 or Cs to increase the yield of positively and negatively charged secondary ions, with a high-energy, well-focused beam of the cluster Liquid Metal Ion Gun (LMIG). In dual beam mode detection limits...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... theory, providing information on electro-optical effects and free-carrier effects. It then focuses on commercially available continuous wave LVP systems. Alternative optoelectronic imaging and probing technologies for fault isolation, namely frequency mapping and laser voltage tracing, are also discussed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... also the ability to distinguish between elemental silicon and silicon oxide due to bonding effects on Auger energies. (a) Secondary electron image of particle. (b–e) Auger maps showing locations of silicon oxide, elemental silicon, oxygen, and aluminum, respectively. Source: Ref 5 An ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.9781627082655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... a diffusion-limited transformation at low temperatures and an energy-limited transformation at high temperatures. At high temperature, diffusion is fast and coarse pearlite forms. At low temperatures, diffusion is slow and fine pearlite forms, but only near the “knee” of the TTT diagram. Below the “knee...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... through capacitive coupling, and the signal was also used for analysis. Figure 11 Secondary electron voltage contrast of an inverter driver. The incident electron beam energy is 1.0keV. E-beam Logic State Imaging (ELSI) One technique we developed is E-beam Logic State Imaging (ELSI...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to operate through the specified thickness such as SILs. Thinning also reduces the scatter and absorption of light especially at shorter wavelengths as shown in figure 1 allowing higher resolution imaging and detection of higher energy photons. Dopants in the bulk Si also necessitate thinner substrates due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... in the amplitudes of both reflected and refracted wave components. When reaching the critical angle for exciting additional wave modes, the incident energy will be partially transferred into this wave mode. Interaction of acoustic waves with material boundaries can be complex, and interpretation of acoustic images...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... describe it in terms of its crystal structure, the binding forces between the atoms, and so on, imagining a diamond or fullerene structure ( Fig. 1.1a ). Engineers or researchers who are more concerned with applications of carbon may discuss it in terms of the strength of its microstructure, imaging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... than with colored materials, and finer details in the flaw can be observed. However, on rough surfaces, background color can lead to a loss in sensitivity. The contrast in a radiographic image is improved by decreasing the energy of the radiation and increasing the density of the image. In gamma...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... as alternatives to silicon substrates in future devices. GaN crystals are relatively challenging to fabricate as a large bulk crystal [3] and therefore are grown on a foreign substrate such as Si or SiC. GaN offers lower energy loss and higher breakdown voltage in comparison to Si due to its higher bandgap [4...