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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Temperature and deformation gradients developed in the course of manufacturing can have undesired effects on the microstructures along their path; the two most common being residual stress and distortion. This chapter discusses these manufacturing-related problems and how they can be minimized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Abstract Abstract Distortion failures are readily identified by the inherent change in size and/or shape. They are serious because they can lead to other types of failure or may even cause complete collapse of structures, such as bridges, ladders, beams, and columns. Distortion failures may...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Distortion is defined as an irreversible and usually unpredictable dimensional change in a component due to thermal processing or temperature variations and loading in service. This chapter describes two types of distortion: size distortion and shape distortion. It addresses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... alloys. The following section provides information on the residual stresses and distortion that remain after welding. The focus then shifts to distortion control of weldments. Inclusions and cracking are discussed in detail. The chapter also discusses the causes for reduced fatigue strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... associated with carburizing are then covered, followed by the processes involved in heat treat distortion and shot peening of carburized and hardened gears. Information on grinding stock allowance on tooth flanks to compensate for distortion is also provided. The chapter further discusses the applications...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.../outside diameter (ID/OD), >0.4. Minimum wall thickness (WT) is defined by: WT ≥ 2.25 × module + 0.4 × mod × L × OD 3 5 . Source: Ref 18 Fig. 23 Classification of shapes. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 24 Typical pinion shaft distortion due to furnace...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
...Abstract Abstract Several process parameters must be considered to ensure success in achieving desired metallurgical properties and to minimize distortion. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the liberation of nitrogen, dissociation of the gas at the selected nitriding temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter provides readers with worked solutions to more than 25 problems related to compositional impurities and structural defects. The problems deal with important issues and challenges such as the design of low-density steels, the causes and effects of distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... It then explains how to determine the onset of yielding, which corresponds to the start of plastic deformation and the flow of metal within the workpiece. The chapter then goes on to present two important yield criteria, one based on shear stress (Tresca criterion), the other on distortion energy (von Mises...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., distortion, and quench cracking of steel. References References 1. Grange R.A. and Kiefer J.M. , Transformation of Austenite on Continuous Cooling and Its Relation to Transformation at Constant Temperature , ASM Trans. , Vol 29 , 1941 , p 85 2. Atlas of Isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... here are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter discusses the processes involved in the through-hardening of gears. It provides information on designing procedures, hardness, distortion, and applications of the through-hardened gears. The chapter presents a case history...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
..., the typical case depths, and the hardenability of carbonitrided parts. In addition, the chapter also discusses the processes involved in quenching, tempering, and distortion of carbonitrided steels. carbonitriding distortion gears hardenability quenching steel tempering CARBONITRIDING...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... of through-hardened gears. Next, the chapter reviews the considerations related to distortion of through-hardened gears. It then discusses the applications of through-hardened gears. Finally, the chapter presents a case history of the design and manufacture of a through-hardened gear rack. annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... and finally presents a case history of distortion control of carburized and hardened gears. carbon content case hardening core hardness gas carburizing gears microstructure residual stress shot peening tempering CARBURIZING is a process in which austenitized ferrous metal is brought...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... the effects of white layer formation in nitrided gears and presents general recommendations for nitrided gears. The chapter describes the microstructure, overload and fatigue damage, bending-fatigue life, cost, and distortion of nitrided gears. Information on nitriding steels used in Europe...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... thicknesses and junctions; making suggestions about casting design to eliminate distortion; optimizing the gating design for slag-free metal; and establishing the feeding techniques to eliminate shrink porosity. This chapter provides the guidelines for these responsibilities. In addition, the guidelines...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., and to correct the distortion. Heat treatment operation Verify design suitability for the type of furnace equipment available. Avoid thermal shock. Avoid decarburized surface. Consider contact with furnace hearths or placement near walls. Avoid heat treatment errors. Control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...Fracture mode identification chart Table 1 Fracture mode identification chart Method Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive failure mode (b) Ductile overload Brittle overload Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual, 1 to 50× (fracture surface) Necking or distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... after abusive or normal grinding conditions. Source: Ref 54 Fig. 66 Influence of nonuniform thickness of surface-hardened layer on distortion for cylindrical steel rod and tube. Source: Ref 15 , 27 Fig. 68 Crankshaft distortion after surface induction hardening of individual...