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dissolved gases

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... and manganese are also found in small amounts in water. Natural water also contains gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide in dissolved form. For trouble-free operation and longer life of the tubes and other high-pressure parts, there are certain parameters of water chemistry...
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Published: 01 July 2000
reactions depend on both pH and pressure of the gases. Values for the hydrogen are at one atmosphere pressure. Values for oxygen are for water in contact with air (aerated) giving 10 ppm dissolved oxygen and for water deaerated to 1ppb dissolved oxygen. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... → 4OH – Aqueous phase variables Acidity  H + concentration  C H + , molal concentration  a H + , activity  pH = –log a H+  (a H + ) (a OH – ) = 10 –14 Dissolved gases  H 2 , C H 2 ∝ P H 2  O 2 , C O 2 ∝ P O 2 Other dissolved species Fe 2+ , Cl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... solids from the feedwater. The second objective of feedwater treatment is to protect the boiler from damage due to corrosion. One of the reasons for corrosion of boiler tubes is dissolved gases such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and ammonia in BFW, of which oxygen is the most important from a corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... These dissolved gases adversely affect the mechanical and physical properties. Vacuum degassing is carried out in the teaming ladles to: Remove hydrogen and nitrogen Lower hydrogen for steels with higher manganese content targeted for higher strength Improve cleanliness of high-quality steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... molding. Source: Ref 13.1 Foams may be created by mechanical stirring or by gases formed by a chemical reaction that forms a gas or releases dissolved gases. Polystyrene foam is formed by the release of dissolved pentane on heating. Polyurethane foam is formed by the release of water vapor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... diagram shows that it is capable of dissolving approximately 1.3% C. However, because the bar is pure iron, it contains little to no carbon, while the charcoal at its surface contains close to 100% C. Hence, the carbon atoms are expected to move into the pure iron bar by the mechanism of diffusion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... (for example, oil and water). All gases are mutually soluble, so only one gaseous phase is possible in a material. Single-phase solids include brass (a solid solution of zinc in copper, with zinc atoms occupying lattice sites), sodium chloride crystals, glass, and polyethylene. Most plain-carbon steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... of hydrogen in aluminum at 1 atm hydrogen pressure The solubility curve for hydrogen in aluminum typically describes equilibrium conditions. No more hydrogen than indicated can be dissolved at any temperature. Control of melting conditions and melt treatment can result in substantially reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... water is heated and stripped with steam. This process removes the dissolved and entrained gases that are less soluble at elevated temperatures. The water is often reused as desalter or overhead-wash water after removal of the undesirable contaminants. Various streams in this unit can be quite corrosive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... by Gibbs energy changes. It plots the energy of formation for many important metal oxides and explains how to construct isothermal stability diagrams to analyze complex reactions involving metals, alloys, and gases containing more than one reactive component. gas-metal systems isothermal stability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... Reaction of carbon and dissolved oxygen under certain melt conditions Mold-metal reactions between the evolved mold and core gases at the solidifying casting surface In addition, any combination of these three sources may have an accumulative effect in promoting porosity formation. However...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the furnace made it possible for the iron to dissolve a large amount of that element ( Ref 4 ), significantly lowering the metal melting point (refer to Fig. 1.3 ). Liquid iron produced this way is rich in carbon and contains undesirable impurities, leading to a product with somewhat limited properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
..., involves the introduction of carbon and nitrogen into steel in order to produce a thin layer of iron carbonitride and nitrides, the "white layer" or compound layer, with an underlying diffusion zone containing dissolved nitrogen and iron (or alloy) nitrides. This chapter first presents the development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... metals can be refined by various techniques after melting (such as ladle refining, for example) to remove dissolved gases and to bring the chemical composition of the alloy within acceptable, well-defined limits. There are also several remelting methods that are available, such as electroslag remelting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... takes the form of uniform growth at the immediate surface. The amount of growth is determined by the following factors and will be seen as a dimensional change: Because the nitriding process is carried out only in the α-iron phase, 0.115 wt% N will be dissolved at 590 °C (1095 °F). At 500 °C (930 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... Wetting mechanism of self-fluxing filler metals. (a) Self-fluxing filler applied to copper component. (b) Filler and its oxide melt and wet the oxide film on the component surface. (c) Oxide film on the component dissolves in the molten braze to form a slag that floats to the free surface. The filler...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... to make them viable for constantly more challenging applications in the quest for oil and gas. Oxygen Although it is not normally present in rock formations at depths more than approximately 100 m (330 ft) below the surface of the earth, gaseous oxygen (O 2 )—or oxygen dissolved in aqueous media...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
...-corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement, general corrosion, and attack by high-temperature gases ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Compositional and property linkages for stainless steels Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion usually is improved by alloying...