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discrete element method

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
...) or the forming load and the average forming pressure (in the upper-bound method). The basic approach of the finite element (FE) method is one of discretization. The FE model is constructed in the following manner [ Kobayashi et al., 1989 ]: A number of finite points are identified...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... life. The chapter explains how and why freckles form as well as how they can be prevented. It describes the criteria for selecting the proper melting method for specific alloys based on melt segregation and chemistry requirements. It compares standard processes, including electric arc furnace/argon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., so the Department of Defense replaced MIL-STD-105 with MIL-STD-1916, DoD Preferred Methods for Acceptance of Product . This latter specification relies more on the statistical approaches outlined earlier in this chapter. That notwithstanding, the military still relies on sampling approaches...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... is developed, can be seen as a shadow of different photographic density from that of the image of the surrounding material. Fig. 1 Diagram of the basic elements of a radiographic system, showing method of detecting and recording an internal flaw in a plate of uniform thickness. Source: Ref 1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
.... It is caused by segregation, without precipitation of a discrete second phase, of certain specific elements to the austenitic grain boundaries, the most effective of these elements being antimony, tin, phosphorus, and arsenic (in that order). The presence of only several hundred parts per million of antimony...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... distribution; estimating forces; predicting potential sources of failures; and improving part quality. Simulations can be effectively performed at various stages of design to support decision-making. The basic concept of the finite-element method (FEM) is one of discretization. The model is constructed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... erosion along with testing and prevention methods. It also provides information on fretting corrosion and fretting fatigue. aluminum aluminum alloys cavitation corrosion cavitation erosion testing fretting corrosion liquid impingement erosion CORROSION can combine with mechanical processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... to phase and morphology changes associated with soluble elements and compounds, other (sometimes desirable) effects accompany elevated-temperature treatment. Microsegregation in all solidified structures is minimized or eliminated. Residual stresses caused by solidification or by prior quenching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... of the notable phases in superalloys and briefly describes how the microstructure can be modified through different processing methods, mainly heat treatments and directional solidification. The microstructure of a superalloy can be described as a face-centered cubic (fcc) γ-phase matrix that contains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or gaseous, wet or dry, and so forth. Reference 1. Guy A.R. , Elements of Physical Metallurgy , 2nd ed. , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. , Reading, MA , 1960 , p 1 Uniform corrosion processes include many corrosion phenomena that are encountered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... over the entire surface. This differs from pitting corrosion, which is often confined to discrete sites. Although both pitting corrosion and IGC have a deleterious effect on corrosion fatigue, the sharper tips produced by IGC act as more drastic stress risers than do pits and further reduce the number...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract Fatigue life analysis and crack growth life prediction require an accurate interpretation of the load spectrum. This appendix presents two methods for interpreting load spectra and provides several data plots and tables comparing fatigue test data with analytically predicted values...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... cycle time, is there a cogent and methodic way to make an objective decision? There are, of course, several methodologies. One that provides a straightforward and logical approach is taught in Management Science courses as Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). The key elements of MCDM...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... or pneumatic charge cylinders, walking beams, and drive rolls Discharging: extractor forks, power rolls, vee rolls, gravity chutes, and robots. Fig. 10.5 Typical methods of material handling in automated induction heating operations Source: TOCCO Brochure DB-2032-8-80, Ferro Corp. In most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... or numerical solutions are needed. Numerical methods provide approximate solutions by converting a complex continuum model into a discrete set of smaller problems with a finite number of degrees of freedom. The meshes are created by using structured elements like rectilinear blocks or unstructured meshes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... in material impedance detected by probe. Pitch/catch sweep method Dual-element transducer method in which one element transmits sound and the other element receives sound. Sound waves are transmitted across the part in a plate wave mode. Unbonds and deeper defects are detected as the sound loss...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... Guy A.G. and Hren J.J. , Elements of Physical Metallurgy , 3rd ed. , Addison-Wesley Publishing Company , 1974 6. Callister W.D. , Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering , 5th ed. , John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 2001 Selected References • Carter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... process, the following factors should be considered ( Ref 7.8 ): Methods of lubricant application Types of additives Corrosion control Cleanliness and removal methods Compatibility with prelubricants and preapplied oils Post-metal forming operations (e.g., welding and adhesive joining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Processes for Engineering Materials , Addison-Wesley , 1997 . [Kobayashi et al., 1989] Kobayashi S. , Oh S. , Altan T. , Metal Forming and the Finite Element Method , Oxford University Press , 1989 . [Lange, 1972] Lange K. , Ed., Study Book of Forming Technology...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
.... Related developments have seen the creation of finite-element modeling methods to predict the grain size variations in the cogging process for ingots. Many programs have been investigated and developed for predicting such alloy characteristics as the liquidus and solidus temperatures of γ′-hardened...