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directed-energy fusion welding

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
...-frequency welding is in the manufacture of tube and pipe. Materials that can be successfully high-frequency welded into tube and pipe include carbon steels, stainless steels, aluminum, copper, brass, and titanium. Electron beam welding is a high-energy-density fusion process that is accomplished by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... adapted from “Energy Sources Used for Fusion Welding” by T.W. Edgar doi: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001332 , “Heat Flow in Fusion Welding” by C.L. Tsai and C.M. Tso doi: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001333 , “Fundamentals of Weld Solidification” by H.D. Solomon doi: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338 , “Residual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... The following processes are most commonly applied in industry: Friction welding is a process in which the heat for welding is produced by direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy at the interface of the workpieces without the application of electrical energy or heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... cause melting (or fusion) in any metal or alloy and can do so very quickly. When the flow of current ceases, the electrode force is maintained while the weld metal rapidly cools and solidifies. The electrodes are retracted after each weld, which usually is completed in a fraction of a second. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... welding gas metal arc welding plasma arc welding plasma-GMAW welding shielded metal arc welding shielding gases submerged arc welding FUSION WELDING PROCESSES involve localized melting and solidification and are normally used when joining similar material combinations or materials belonging to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... types of welds commonly used with fusion welding processes are shown in Fig. 1.4 . Joint designs and clearances that overwhelmingly trap the beam energy within the joint cavity are preferred for increased process efficiency. When joining thick sections, the preferred joint designs allow the weld metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... the joint should be considered. However, when dissimilar metals are joined by fusion welding processes, alloying between the base metals and a filler metal, when used, becomes a major consideration. The resulting weld metal can behave much differently from one or both base metals during subsequent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... heating) can be readily torch brazed. Although any flame-producing device can be used for torch brazing, commercial applications are accomplished with the same type of torch, controls, and gases used for torch fusion welding. Conversion to brazing merely requires changes in torch nozzles and goggle lenses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter examines the effects of welding on the structure of metal, particularly the changes induced in the isothermal regions adjacent to the weld. It presents more than 150 images identifying structures and features associated with fusion and solid-state welding processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
.... 1962 ]. (The electron beam welding process is a high-density fusion process that is accomplished by bombarding the joint to be welded with an intense, strongly focused beam of electrons. The instantaneous conversion of the kinetic energy of these electrons into thermal energy as they impact and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... referred to as arc welding with stick electrodes, manual metal arc welding, or stick welding. Direct current electrode positive generally is used to obtain optimal mechanical properties. Resistance welding, which is another fusion welding process, occurs when heat is generated by resistance to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...-tungsten arc-welded (GTAW) and gas-metal arc-welded (GMAW) structures, promote the formation of more complex, multidirectional beta grain morphologies ( Fig. 9.4 ). The fusion-zone beta grain size depends primarily on the weld energy input, with a higher energy input promoting a larger grain size. Due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... brittle carbide networks in weld-fusion zones. Embrittlement due to oxygen and nitrogen is attributed to solid-solution hardening. Fig. 12.1 Effects of interstitial elements carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen on strength and ductility of titanium Fig. 12.2 Effects of interstitial elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... equally important to understanding how weldments may behave in corrosive environments ( Ref 2 ). A metallographic study has shown that welds solidify into various regions, as shown in Fig. 1 . The composite region, or fusion zone, essentially consists of filler metal that has been diluted with...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... general guideline is that the grinding or machining operation must penetrate at least 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) into the parent plate. In these procedures, the depth, the diameter of the groove, and the direction of the grinding marks become important issues. In GTAW and plasma dressing, the weld toe is remelted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... metallographic examination showed that the lack of side-wall fusion existed throughout the length of the weld. Clearly, the robot and fixturing were slightly misaligned. The robot welder directed the welding heat too far on one side of the joint and not enough on the other side. The robot was reprogrammed to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... root of a weld joint to support molten weld metal Shrinkage voids: Cavity-type discontinuities normally formed by shrinkage during solidification Oxide inclusions: Particles of surface oxides that have not melted and are mixed into the weld metal Incomplete fusion (also known as lack of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... Abstract This chapter describes the factors that affect the corrosion performance of aluminum assemblies joined by methods such as welding, brazing, soldering, and adhesive bonding. The factors covered include galvanic effects, crevices, and assembly stresses in products susceptible to stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... the tube, a puncture was seen at the fusion zone of the butt weld ( Fig. 6.163 ). The weld metal had spilled out in the longitudinal direction of the tube, as shown by an arrow in Fig. 6.163 . Dimensional measurements did not reveal any tube bulging. Fig. 6.163 Close-up view of ID surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This appendix provides detailed information on design deficiencies, material and manufacturing defects, and service-life anomalies. It covers ingot-related defects, forging and sheet forming imperfections, casting defects, heat treating defects, and weld discontinuities. It shows how...