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direct-drive welding

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... stationary; (b) both workpieces are brought together, and an axial force is applied to begin the upsetting process; (c) workpiece rotation is stopped, and the upsetting process is completed. Source: Ref 6.9 There are two principal friction welding methods: direct-drive welding and inertia-drive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
.... (b) Direct drive. [ Riemenschneider et al., 1959 ] Direct-Driven Presses Direct-driven presses usually employ hydraulic oil or water emulsion as the working medium. In earlier vertical press designs, at the start of the downstroke the upper ram falls under gravity and oil is drawn from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... by direct welding. Three arrangements used for making this type of weld are shown in Fig. 3.3 . In all three arrangements, one transformer secondary circuit makes one spot weld. The simplest and most common arrangement is two workpieces sandwiched between opposing upper and lower electrodes ( Fig. 3.3a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... the spreading crack has sufficiently weakened the section. Most attention is devoted to the first stage to answer the question, Why did it start at this point? The second stage is observed to determine the direction of the progression. It appears that a fatigue crack will follow the path of least resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
...” ratio for aircraft parts (see Chapter 11, “Aluminum in Aircraft and Space Applications” in this book) or replace longitudinal welds. Within the aluminum industry, many alloys and end products have been developed specifically for use as extruded profiles. They have major roles in all forms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smfpa.t53500211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-317-1
... or product change ( Fig. 10.4d ). Fig. 10.4 Common roll forming mill configurations. (a) Outboard, (b) Inboard, (c) Double-head, and (d) Raft types The machine may be furnished with either a fixed- or a variable-speed drive unit that is powered by an alternating current (ac) or a direct current...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... of the power supply to the electrode holder and the other terminal to a ground clamp ( Fig. 2.2 ). To start welding, an arc is struck by briefly touching the workpiece with the tip of the electrode. The welder guides the electrode by hand and controls its position, direction, travel speed, and arc length...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... a weld fabrication into a casting, it is most important to analyze the forces, i.e., stresses that are expected to act on the part during service so that the flexibility of casting design can be fully utilized. Once the location, the direction, and the magnitude of stresses are known, the design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... not an accepted SI unit, it is occasionally used for small distances, such as interatomic distances, and some wavelengths. anisotropic. Exhibiting different properties when tested along axes in different direction. In magnetics, capable of being magnetized more readily in one direction than in a transverse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... into the transfer system. One of the billet loader arms moves the cleaning block into the center of the press in order to clean the shell from the container bore. 6.1.1.4 Hydraulic Drive and Control Systems for Direct Extrusion When hydraulic presses were first built, the operating medium was exclusively...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... Entraining velocity in./s V r1 Rolling velocity of pinion in./s V r2 Rolling velocity of gear in./s W Nr Normal operating load lbf w Nr Normal unit load lbf/in. X w Welding factor ... X Γ Load sharing factor ... α Pressure-viscosity coefficient in. 2 /lbf...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.9781627083423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
..., the assessment is performed assuming the tensile properties of the weld metal). In reality, the difference in tensile properties between the different weld regions will influence how plasticity develops at defects and, hence, the relationship between crack driving forces and applied loading. This can lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
.... The electrodes are suitable for both alternating and direct current operation. In many cases, the same welding power source is coupled to a carbon-arc torch for both, SMAW and for defect removal. Shielded metal-arc electrodes are available in most of the more commonly used alloys. While standard commercial...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... for this difference. Often the welding heat source must be directed at the metal having the higher thermal conductivity to obtain the proper heat balance. When welding dissimilar metals, heat loss to the base metals can be balanced somewhat by selectively preheating the metal having the higher thermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... by conversion of iron and steel components to aluminum, magnesium, and polymers to achieve reduced emissions. This directive was a setback to many iron casting industries. Currently, the CAFÉ regulations are mandated at 37 miles per gallon for the year 2020 and beyond. The carbon emission–reduction drive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... (see discussion of Fig. 9.12 and 9.13 ). It was thus a direct consequence of the high temperature to which the steel had been heated to achieve the forge weld and of a moderately fast cooling rate after welding. This structure could, of course, be refined by heat treatment after welding. Forge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.9781627082914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... of the grains to advance more in a direction normal to the weld centerline. Thus, the grain growth from either side of the centerline stops abruptly at the centerline, producing a boundary-like structure. Such welds have been found to be the least resistant to cracking. Cracking can originate at defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... indicates the direction of working. Source: Ref 2 A number of surface flaws also can be produced by the forging operation. These flaws are often caused by the movement of metal over or on another surface without actual welding or fusing of the surfaces. The most common surface flaws in steel...