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direct corrosion monitoring

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... specialized. Radiation hazard Source: NACE International The types of corrosion monitors can be categorized as shown in Table 13 . Direct measurements of corrosion include corrosion coupons and sentinel holes. A sentinel hole is a hole that is drilled from the outside of a vessel and that...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... demand (e.g., environmental issues involving certain coating processes), and lost production. Not only is there a direct and indirect financial burden, but corrosion also has a considerable societal impact. Crucial industries such as energy, aerospace, transportation, food, agriculture, electronics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... well designed, thorough, and sustained. Corrosion monitoring techniques either measure corrosion directly or measure parameters that are indicative of corrosion ( Ref 10 ). Direct measurement techniques used at refineries include the following: Nondestructive inspection Use of coupons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... Arrows indicate the anodic direction. The first step in the materials selection process is a thorough review of the corrosive environment and equipment operating conditions. This review requires input from knowledgeable process engineers. Precise definition of the chemical environment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... analysis Copper ion displacement Probe measurements, such as linear polarization resistance, electrical resistance, and, less commonly, electrochemical noise, and direct current potentiodynamic polarization ( Ref 77 ). Alternating current impedance probes see laboratory use but rarely are used in the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This appendix explains how to identify crystallographic planes and directions. It shows how Miller indices, a system for specifying crystallographic planes within a unit cell, are determined for cubic and hexagonal systems. It also explains how x-ray diffraction techniques are used in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... total design concept become especially apparent but usually in hindsight. Direct contact of dissimilar metals introduces the possibility of galvanic corrosion, and small anodic (corroding) areas should be avoided wherever this contact is apparent. Fig. 7 Design details that can affect galvanic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... that provides high resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in the short-transverse direction at stress levels up to 75% of the yield strength but with an attendant reduction in strength of about 15%. Subsequently this loss in usable strength was recouped by development of the T74 temper for alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in a component lifetime—including procurement, fabrication, transportation, storage, installation, commissioning, operation, and maintenance. Corrosion failures have occurred because of unexpected causes that resulted from a lack of appreciation about corrosion, sometimes the direct result of poor...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for pipelines carrying liquid products. As a part of condition-monitoring programs, pipeline companies commonly use field investigation (direct assessment) programs. The overall condition of the coatings and pipelines is assessed, and it is determined whether corrosion or SCC is present on the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... based on just the amount of acid gases present. This can have a direct mitigating effect on corrosion rate and, in some cases, promote the formation of protective corrosion films, thus reducing the corrosion rate to very low levels. Hydrogen sulfide can also play other roles in corrosion in oil and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... documented in the range of $35 to $50 million. Based on the current assessment of corrosion costs, the total annual direct cost of corrosion is estimated at $3.7 billion. Of this total, maintenance-related expenses are estimated at $1.8 billion, vessel turnaround expenses at $1.4 billion, and fouling costs...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... environment. These factors usually do not remain constant as corrosion progresses but are affected by externally imposed changes and by changes that occur as a direct consequence of the corrosion process itself. Other factors that have major effects on corrosion processes include temperature gradients at...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... naturally cathodic to steel. If these electrodes were wired directly to a structure, they would act as cathodes and would cause accelerated corrosion of the structure they are intended to protect. The direct current (dc) source reverses the natural polarity and allows the materials to act as anodes. Instead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to decrease the harmful effects of impingement. Inlet pipes should not be directed onto the vessel walls if it can be avoided. Flared tubing can be used to reduce problems at the inlet tubes in a tube bundle. Since erosion-corrosion is a form of localized corrosion, it is useful to design the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... metals can be attributed to the removal of electrons from the metal and the formation of corrosion products by: Direct chemical action of metabolic product, such as sulfuric acid, inorganic or organic sulfides, and chelating agents such as organic acid Changes in oxygen content, salt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... surfaces ( Ref 5 ). The acids produced by these organisms can also contribute to corrosion by aiding the breakdown of coatings systems. Alternatively, other organisms that have no direct influence on corrosion may be involved in the breakdown of coatings. The breakdown products are then sometimes usable as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... piping systems SIGNIFICANT ADVANCES HAVE BEEN made in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology as applied to boiling water reactor (BWR) piping systems. This success is a direct outgrowth of efforts to overcome the difficult examination problem of detection and sizing of intergranular stress...