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dimensional distortion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... be classified in different ways. One way is to consider them either as dimensional distortion (growth or shrinkage) or as shape distortion (such as bending, twisting, or buckling). They may also be classified as being either temporary or permanent in nature. This chapter discusses the nature, causes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Abstract Distortion is defined as an irreversible and usually unpredictable dimensional change in a component due to thermal processing or temperature variations and loading in service. This chapter describes two types of distortion: size distortion and shape distortion. It addresses how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... and finishing, and distortion and dimensional change. distortion finishing fractures grinding heat treatment mechanical design microstructure quality tool steel toughness Tool steels are remarkable materials which must perform the most difficult tasks of any structural materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... distinct advantages: Reduced distortion Reduced final machining time Improved part cleanliness Improved dimensional stability If one considers the cost of scrap due to distortion and time spent straightening, nitriding is not an expensive process compared to carburizing. However...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...; components near the center of the furnace heat slower. Other factors include gravity and support friction. Thus, shape distortion and dimensional variation are inherent parts of the powder-binder processes. Distortion is related to nonuniform final size, seen by shape loss after sintering. Figure 1.3...
Image
Published: 01 December 1999
Fig. 6.44 Effect of steel hardenability and size on the distortion of case-hardened washer-like test pieces made of En 353 steel. Dimensional ratio for both test pieces is ~3:2:1. Source: Ref 57 More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Temperature and deformation gradients developed in the course of manufacturing can have undesired effects on the microstructures along their path; the two most common being residual stress and distortion. This chapter discusses these manufacturing-related problems and how they can be minimized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... transformation steel distortion stress raisers residual stress cracking QUENCHING is one of the more important heat treating processes, because it is so closely related to dimensional control requirements and control of residual stresses. Quenching is often attributed to many distortion and cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... to the austenitizing temperature, holding at the austenitizing temperature, and cooling or quenching. As noted, the ability to harden the D-type steels by air cooling provides the great benefit of minimizing distortion and dimensional changes during martensite formation. However, to prevent cracking and fully exploit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... austenite, leading to a disproportional growth and distortion. Also, ion nitriding can cause a decrease in volume in gears made of martensitic steels. As in other heat treat processes, dimensional change of gears is better determined by a preproduction run. In the absence of such data, a growth of 0.025 mm...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... Abstract Pattern equipment is the tooling utilized to form the mold cavity of a casting. This chapter first discusses the following factors that should be considered for determining the type of pattern equipment: number of castings to be produced, mold processes to be employed, dimensional...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... and junctions; making suggestions about casting design to eliminate distortion; optimizing the gating design for slag-free metal; and establishing the feeding techniques to eliminate shrink porosity. This chapter provides the guidelines for these responsibilities. In addition, the guidelines for the use...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... stresses: Residual stress systems are balanced. That is, if one part of the system is altered, the rest of the system will change or adjust to maintain the balance. This change or adjustment results in distortion, or dimensional change, of the part involved. This distortion can be used to estimate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... of through-hardened gears. Next, the chapter reviews the considerations related to distortion of through-hardened gears. It then discusses the applications of through-hardened gears. Finally, the chapter presents a case history of the design and manufacture of a through-hardened gear rack. annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... and will be seen as a dimensional change: Steel chemistry Gas dissociation or gas ratios Process temperature selection Time at process temperature which influences the thickness of the compound layer Distortion (twisting and bending that leads to shape change) can result from: Mixed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... corrective measure adopted to salvage the parts was to carry out a deep freeze, because reprocessing may result in scrapping of the product due to dimensional distortion. On a permanent basis, a periodic preventive maintainence schedule for the oxyprobe was drawn up and adhered to. Results Correcting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
..., normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter discusses the processes involved in the through-hardening of gears. It provides information on designing procedures, hardness, distortion, and applications of the through-hardened gears. The chapter presents a case history on the design...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... processes, there is some distortion of gears after induction hardening. Hot-rolled materials exhibit more dimensional change and variation than cold-drawn materials that are subjected to densification due to cold working. A quench and tempered material condition or pre-heat treatment, however, provides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... and velocity of the quenchant movement relative to each part on the fixture. This leads to more consistent metallurgical and dimensional quality. Furthermore, a single direct-quench operation minimizes distortion by bringing about crystallographic phase changes during only one heating and one cooling cycle...