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dimensional distortion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... be classified in different ways. One way is to consider them either as dimensional distortion (growth or shrinkage) or as shape distortion (such as bending, twisting, or buckling). They may also be classified as being either temporary or permanent in nature. This chapter discusses the nature, causes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... here are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for densification and dimensional correction, followed by finishing operations. The finishing operations include machining, case and through hardening, steam treatment, and so on (Ref 1) . This chapter reviews failure aspects of structural ferrous PM parts, which form the bulk of the PM industry. Focus...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... size, ASTM No. 0. 100×. Source: Ref 12 Fig. 5.30 Photomicrograph of martensitic structure. 500×. Fig. 5.25 Distortion caused by lack of symmetry in a gear: a typical problem caused by lack of symmetry in design, illustrated by a gear that warped during heat treating. Design...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... and support friction. Thus, shape distortion and dimensional variation are inherent parts of the powder-binder processes. Distortion is related to nonuniform final size, seen by shape loss after sintering. Figure 1.3 is an example of a right-circular cylinder with sintered diameter change from the top...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... phase transformation steel distortion stress raisers residual stress cracking QUENCHING is one of the more important heat treating processes, because it is so closely related to dimensional control requirements and control of residual stresses. Quenching is often attributed to many distortion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Temperature and deformation gradients developed in the course of manufacturing can have undesired effects on the microstructures along their path; the two most common being residual stress and distortion. This chapter discusses these manufacturing-related problems and how they can be minimized...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... stresses: Residual stress systems are balanced. That is, if one part of the system is altered, the rest of the system will change or adjust to maintain the balance. This change or adjustment results in distortion, or dimensional change, of the part involved. This distortion can be used to estimate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... treat processing of steels. This is followed by sections on various aspects of heat treatment design and heat treating practices for minimizing distortion. Influence of design, steel grade, and condition is then illustrated in the examples of failures due to heat treatment. A procedure is analyzed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... The major problems encountered in sheet metal forming are fracturing, buckling and wrinkling, shape distortion, loose metal, and undesirable surface textures. The occurrence of any one or a combination of these conditions can render the sheet metal part unusable. Fracturing Buckling and Wrinkling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter compares and contrasts surface-engineering processes based on process availability, corrosion and wear performance, distortion effects, penetration depth or attainable coating thickness, and cost. It provides both quantitative and qualitative information as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... mode identification chart Instantaneous failure mode (a) Progressive failure mode (b) Method Ductile overload Brittle overload Fatigue Corrosion Wear Creep Visual, 1 to 50 × (fracture surface) Necking or distortion in direction consistent with applied loads Dull, fibrous...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., and the way in which the pattern is distorted by the part can be used to determine both the three-dimensional shape and the orientation of the part. Certain operations, such as tracking or part insertion, may require the vision system to follow the motion of an object. This is a difficult task...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... The recommended surface carbon is 0.65 to 0.85% for high-nickel steels such as the 4800 series, which is usually direct quenched. To minimize cost and distortion, use direct quenching whenever possible. To assure optimal dimensional control, properly maintain quenching dies and plugs. Quench as rapidly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... as the use of fixtures (press quenching). One form of distortion that may occur on quenching is defined as shape distortion, which is dimensional variation that occurs when the parts are hot and the stress of their own weight leads to dimensional variation, such as bending, warpage, and twisting. Shape...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... desirable combinations of mechanical and physical properties such that castings meet defined temper requirements. This chapter discusses the processes involved in solution heat treatment, quenching, precipitation hardening, and annealing of aluminum alloys. The effects of these processes on dimensional...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... in dimensions may be experienced from part to part as well as within a part. Variation in the dimensional change within a part, which is usually caused by green density variations, can lead to distortion of the part. Removal of the binder from the injection-molded part is accomplished in the debinding step...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
...Abstract Abstract After shaping and first-stage binder removal, the component (with remaining backbone binder) is heated to the sintering temperature. Further heating induces densification, evident as dimensional shrinkage, pore rounding, and improved strength. This chapter begins...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... and to simultaneously produce desired changes in other properties or in microstructures. Reasons for annealing include improvement of machinability, facilitation of cold work, improvement in mechanical or electrical properties, and to increase dimensional stability. In ferrous alloys, annealing usually is done above...