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digital radiography

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Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 8 Digital radiography image of a die cast aluminum carburetor. Porosity appears as dark spots in the area of the center bore, through the vertical center of the image. Courtesy of B.G. Isaacson, Bio-Imaging Research, Inc. More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 10 Digital radiography images of an investment cast jet engine turbine blade showing detail through a wide range in material thickness. The trailing edge of the blade (along the top of the image) is 2 mm (0.080 in.) thick, the root section of the blade (to the far left in the image) is 19 More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 9 Evaluation of cast transmission housing assembly. (a) Photograph of cast part. (b) Digital radiography image used to verify the steel spring pin and shuttle valve assembly through material thicknesses ranging from 3 mm (⅛ in.) in the channels to 25 mm (1 in.) in the rib sections More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...% difference in absorption can be routinely achieved in production inspection applications. The typical dynamic range of an image intensifier before image processing is about 2000 to 1. Digital Radiography Another method of radiographic imaging involves the formation of an image by scanning a linear...
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 9 Comparison of (a) computed tomography (CT) system and a CT image at the height of the flaw shows the flaw in more detail and in a form an inexperienced viewer can readily recognize; (b) radiography system and a high quality digital radiograph of a solid rocket motor igniter shows More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... of changing the x-ray energy for changes in total material thickness. These capabilities have significantly improved productivity and have reduced costs, thus enabling higher percentages of castings to be inspected and providing instant feedback after repair procedures. Real-time digital radiography images...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Rockwell 120° diamond cone, 1.6–13 mm ( 1 16 to ½ in.) diam ball 0.1–1.5 mm (0.004–0.06 in.) 25–375 μm (0.1–1.48 μin.) Major 60–150 kgf Minor 10 kgf Read hardness directly from meter or digital display No preparation necessary on many surfaces 300 manually 900 automatically Forgings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., leak paths, and other conditions not readily apparent using visual or other assessment techniques. Techniques in this area include x-ray and n-ray radiography, dye penetrant inspection, fluorescent dye pressure testing, and magnafluxing. Mechanical and environmental approaches for evaluating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of available techniques is reduced. For example, x-ray radiography is commonly carried out at the fabrication stage but is generally not a realistic inspection method in service, where gamma radiography is generally employed due to its portability and independence from an external power source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... evaluation methods to flaw detection in P/M parts. The nondestructive evaluation methods covered are mechanical proof testing, metallography, liquid penetrant crack detection, filtered particle crack detection, magnetic particle crack inspection, direct current resistivity testing, x-ray radiography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... radiography is carried out with x-rays from tubes that operate in a voltage range between 120 and 400 kV. Higher voltages can be achieved using special equipment. As the thickness of the test object increases, the amount of kilovolts also must increase to keep the exposure time down to 4 to 6 min, typically...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... 2 Wormhole porosity in a weld bead. Longitudinal cut. 20x Radiography is the most widely used nondestructive method for detecting subsurface gas porosity in weldments. The radiographic image of round porosity appears as round or oval spots with smooth edges, and elongated porosity appears...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... to track the contour of the part and keep the transducers normal to the surface. They also index at the end of each scan pass. The ultrasonic energy is converted to digital data and stored in a file. Imaging software allows C-scan displays in either shades of gray or color. Modern units are capable of scan...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... high resolution C-scan equipment. Prior to acoustic inspection, die attach inspection was performed primarily with x-ray radiography. Experience soon showed that reflected sound indicates the true percent of the total area of a die attach interface that is bonded while x-ray inspection reveals only...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... isotopes, and the alpha particles emitted by spontaneous decomposition can cause electronic circuits to generate spurious digital signals. Although lead is nominally cheap, being only an eighth of the cost of tin, certified low-alpha lead is much more expensive. The price of low-alpha lead roughly doubles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., are the main alloys used for metallic aircraft structure. 2.3 Aluminum Alloy Designation Wrought aluminum alloys are designated by a four-digit numerical system developed by the Aluminum Association ( Table 2.3 ). The first digit defines the major alloying class of the series. The second digit defines...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... xx.x unused series for cast alloys 7 xx.x series for alloys with zinc 8 xx.x series for alloys with tin 9 xx.x series for other, nonstandard elements Like the designation system for wrought aluminum alloys, the first digit indicates the major alloy elements, except in the case...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... avoided by making certain that the guide tube for the electrode wire is centered between the base-metal surfaces and between the dams. Other inclusions may result from melting of nonmetallic laminations in the steel being welded. These are detectable by radiography. They can be avoided by magnetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... is extremely important. There can never be too many drawings or photographs. The cost of photographs (especially digital) is cheap compared to analysis. A high-quality camera with macro-capability is very important and is one of the best tools that a failure analysis laboratory can have. The use of gray cards...