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diffraction

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., crystalline imperfections, and the formation of surface or planar defects. It also discusses the use of X-ray diffraction for determining crystal structure. crystalline structures line defects metallic structure planar defects plastic deformation point defects volume defects X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Abstract This chapter covers the early studies and various discoveries by metals researchers to study the internal structure of metals. The topics covered include light microscopy, phase diagrams, X-ray diffraction, principles of precipitation hardening, and dislocation theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... cross-section TEM image NMOS transistor, tilted few degrees away from [110] Si zone-axis to minimize diffraction effects. (b) An image of reference hologram without the sample in the path of the beam, recorded after positively biasing the biprism wire. (c) Image of the hologram recorded with sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... alloys, several techniques are used to determine phase diagrams. These include thermal analysis (TA), metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, electrical resistance measurement, and magnetic analysis methods, among others. All of these methods are based on the principle that when a phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... failure analysis. Some lenses are designed for immersion in water or oil and in these cases the N.A. becomes 1.2 or 1.4 respectively. Well made objectives of 50x magnification or greater are usually designed to be diffraction limited, meaning that the wavelength of the light and the collecting cone of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... the different phases in steel was by Edgar C. Bain ( FIG. 5.5 ). Using x-ray diffraction on samples heated to the high temperature phase (austenite), he found they were face-centered-cubic (fcc). Ferrite and martensite at room temperature were body-centered-cubic (bcc). This explained the higher...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... changed industrial practice but because it combined the latest research tool (x-ray diffraction) with the latest theory of hardening (slip interference by precipitated particles). Bain performed the x-ray work and Jeffries supplied the slip interference concept. This paper showed, as concluded earlier...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... dispersive or energy dispersive analysis. In wavelength dispersive instruments, shown in Fig. 4 , the emitted x-ray beam is directed onto one of several crystals that separates it into its component wavelengths by diffraction (similar to separating light into its component wavelengths by passing through a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... structures [48 , 61] and various structural defects [21 , 61] . 3D acquisition has also been combined with analytical techniques such as EDS or electron backscattered diffraction [21 , 63] . It is common for FA labs to have multiple FIBs running around the clock to keep up with demands for TEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... material—until a few years later, when x-ray diffraction uncovered that no matter how far grains are distorted, they still retain their crystalline structure. As late as 1924, Jeffries could find no solution to grain boundaries other than the amorphous cement theory. A second consulting assignment that...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... diffraction effects called “satellites” or “sidebands,” where the fundamental reflections are flanked by secondary intensity maxima ( Fig. 9.19 ). The diffuse scattering that causes the satellites is a result of the periodic variation in lattice parameter and/or scattering factor. In reciprocal space, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Clustering of 2–4 carbon atoms on octahedral sites of martensite; segregation of carbon atoms to dislocation boundaries Clustering is associated with diffuse spikes around fundamental diffraction spots of martensite. 20–100 70–210 Modulated clusters of carbon atoms on (102) martensite planes (A2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...). The resolution ∆x of any optical system is physically limited by diffraction, which is governed by the wavelength λ of the radiation used for imaging. According to the so-called Sparrow Criterion [12] , the optical resolution is limited to: (3) Δ x = 0.5 λ n sin ( θ ) Here...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... In addition, the latent heat of fusion is only approximately 3 to 4% of the corresponding latent heat of vaporization. The small amount of volume change and the relatively small latent heats of fusion are evidence that the atomic bonding in liquids and solids is very similar. X-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Fault isolation requires a microscopical imaging of the structures. Miniaturization of IC devices has followed Moore’s law for such a long time that image resolution is a critical topic for optical CFI and PE in particular. The general approach of diffraction limited image resolution R in optical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... tetragonal (bct). Fig. 4.11 Comparison of the crystal structures of ferrite and martensite The a and c lengths of the unit cell of martensite can be measured using x-ray diffraction techniques. As shown in Fig. 4.12 , it is found that as the %C dissolved in the martensite increases, the c...